FUNDING SOURCE: CDC, 1995 – 2000


The goals of this study were to characterize physical activity (PA) habits in minority women 40 years and older and to develop a set of surveys to measure activity patterns in this population.  Special emphasis was given to measuring intermittent, moderate intensity activities.  Efforts have been made to better understand the specific constraints to recreational PA and negotiation strategies to these constraints in minority women. In this process, we focused on the following questions.  What activities do minority women do during their non-working time?  Do women perform continuous or intermittent bouts of PA throughout the day?  What types of surveys items are needed to characterize PA patterns on minority women?  Do these survey items comprise valid and reliable measures of PA in this population?  Does the survey reflect the demands on women's leisure time that may affect the type, frequency, and duration of women's PA?

Research activities occurred in two phases.  Phase 1 included a) a review of existing survey methodology to assess women's PA habits, b) convening a panel of experts to discuss measurement and evaluation issues related to developing women's PA surveys, and c) identifying PA patterns in 100 African-American and 100 Native-American women over a 6-month period.

Attention was given to marital, education, and employment status and family/child care responsibilities in subject recruitment.  In Phase 2, the information obtained in Phase 1 was used to develop and validate two surveys (a short global survey and a longer quantitative history survey) to measure PA patterns in African-American and Native-American women.  Methods used to identify PA patterns and to validate the PA surveys were direct measures (PA records, pedometers, and motion detectors) and indirect measures of PA (body fatness, fitness, and blood measures of metabolic fitness).

Ainsworth B, Anderson L, Becker DM, Blalock SJ, Brown DR, Brownson RC, Brownstein N, Cornell CE, Devellis B, Finnegan LP, Folger S, Fulton JE, Groff JY, Herman, C, Jones, D, Keyserling, TC, Matson Koffman, D, Lewis, C, Masse, LC, McKeown, R, Orenstein, D, & Spadero, AJ (2001). Observations from the CDC. Community Prevention Study: contributions to women's health and prevention research. J Womens Health Gend Based Med, 10(10), 913-920.

Ainsworth, BE (2000). Challenges in measuring physical activity in women. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 28(2), 93-96.

Ainsworth, BE (2000). Issues in the Assessment of Physical Activity in Women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(S2), S37-S42.   See errata sheet - RQES 2000; 21(3)312.

Ainsworth BE (2000). Habitual physical activity in women. Phys Sports Med,28:25-26. (Invited by Ross Anderson)

Ainsworth BE, Irwin ML, Addy CL, Whitt MC, & Stolarczyk LM (1999). Moderate physical activity patterns of minority women: the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med, 8(6), 805-813.

Henderson KA & Ainsworth BE (2003). A synthesis of perceptions about physical activity among older African American and American Indian women. Am J Public Health, 93(2), 313-317.

Henderson KA & Ainsworth B (2001). Physical activity and human development among older American Indian women: The Cultural Activity Participation Study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 9(3), 285-299.

Henderson KA, Neff LJ, Sharpe P, Greaney ML, Royce SW, & Ainsworth B (2001). "It Takes a Village" to promote physical activity: The potential of public park and recreation departments. Journal of Parks and Recreation, 19(1), 23-41.

Henderson KA & Ainsworth B (2001). Researching leisure and physical activity with women of color: Issues and emerging questions. Leisure Sciences, 23(1), 23-41.

Henderson KA & Ainsworth B (2001). The connections between social support and physical activity involvement: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Women in Sport and Physical Activity, 9(2), 27-53.

Henderson KA & Ainsworth B (2000). Sociocultural perspectives on physical activity in the lives of older African American and American Indian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Women and Health, 31(1), 1-20.

Henderson KA & Ainsworth B (2000). Enablers and constraints to walking for older African American and American Indian women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(4), 313-321.

Henderson KA, Ainsworth B, Stolarczyk LM, Hootman JM, & Levin S (1999). Notes on linking qualitative and quantitative data to study the physical activity of women of color. Leisure Sciences, 21(3), 247-255.

Irwin ML, Ainsworth B, Addy C, Mayer-Davis EJ, Pate R, & Durstine JL (2002). Moderate intensity physical activity, maximal treadmill duration, and the metabolic syndrome in tri-ethnic sample of women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 26(10), 1030-1037.

LaMonte MJ, Durstine JL, & Ainsworth B (2003). The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype among women. Atherosclerosis, 171(1), 123-130.

LaMonte MJ, Durstine JL, Yanowitz FG, Lim T, DuBose KD, Davis P, & Ainsworth B (2002). Cardiorespiratory fitness and c-reactive protein a among tri-ethnic sample of women. Circulation, 106(4), 403-406.

LaMonte MJ, Durstine JL, Addy C, Irwin ML, & Ainsworth B (2001). Physical activity, physical fitness, and Framingham 10 year risk score: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 21(2), 63-70.

Masse LC, Ainsworth B, Tortolero S, Levin S, Henderson KA, Fulton JE, & Mayo K (1998). Measuring physical activity in minority women: issues and ideas. Jourrnal of Womens Health, 7(1), 57-67.

Tudor-Locke C, Henderson KA, Wilcox S, Cooper RS, Durstine JL, & Ainsworth B (2003). In their own voices: Definitions and interpretations of physical activity. Women's Health Issues 13(5) 194-199.

Whitt MC, Levin S, Ainsworth B, & DuBose KD (2003). Evaluation of a two-part survey item to assess moderate physical activity: The cross-cultural activity participation study. Journal of Womens Health 12(3) 203-212.

Whitt MC, Tudor-Locke C, Irwin ML, & Ainsworth B (2004). Walking patterns in a sample of African American Native American and Caucasian women: The cross-cultural activity participation study. Health Education and Behavior 31(4) 45S-56S.

Wilcox S, Ainsworth B, LaMonte MJ, & DuBose KD (2002). Worry regarding major diseases among older African American Native American and Caucasian women. Women and Health 36(3) 83-99.

Wilcox S, Irwin ML, Addy C, Stolarczyk LM, Ainsworth B, Whitt MC, & Tudor-Locke C (2001). Agreement between participant-rated and compendium-coded intensity of daily activities in a triethnic sample of women ages 40 years and older. Ann Behav Med 23(4) 253-262.