UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health through Physical Activity"
Greetings from the faculty, staff, and students in
the USC Prevention Research Center. Finally, cooler fall weather
is upon us, making it easier to accumulate that "60" minutes
of moderate and vigorous activity currently recommended by the National
Academies' Institute of Medicine (IOM). (Note from editor: see article
below titled "60 Minutes a Day.") Their recommendation
may seem hard for some people to achieve, but to maintain a healthy
body weight, it may be a realistic assessment of the amount of energy
expenditure needed on a daily basis. The IOM recommendation should
not negate the health enhancing value of 30 minutes of activity
recommended by the Public Health Service to reduce chronic disease
risks. It merely focuses on a different health outcome: healthy
weight maintenance and maximal cardiovascular health. So, how can
a busy adult achieve 60 minutes of activity/exercise per day? How
about active commuting to work? Given the traffic, it may take less
time to get to where you are going. And, it can't be put off for
On another note, if you haven't had a chance to check
out our PRC website (http://prevention.sph.sc.edu),
it is a great resource for research updates, current events, and
physical activity communication materials. Best wishes for an active,
Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Delores Pluto, Newsletter Editor (email@example.com)
IN THIS ISSUE - September 2002
NEWS YOU CAN USE: Moving Hearts for Health, Urban
Walking Kit, Walk to School Day
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON: "IMPACT"
Bill, Public Input on TEA-21 Reauthorization, America Bikes
RESEARCH NOTES: Barriers to Walking/Cycling to School,
School Travel in Georgia, Perceptions of PA among African-American
Women, Leisure-Time PA among Adolescents, Walking & Vigorous
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: 60 Minutes
a Day, State Legislation Related to PA & Nutrition, Health Care
Provider Counseling for PA, PA and Health Strategy (Canada), Changing
the Way We Age
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES: Safe Routes to School
in Delaware, AIM 2010
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: ASHC Annual Meeting,
CDC Women's Health Conference, NRPA Annual Congress, Cooper Institute
NEWS YOU CAN USE
MOVING HEARTS FOR HEALTH: The theme of the World Health
Organization's Global Embrace this year is "Active Aging: Moving
Hearts for Health." The Global Embrace is an annual intergenerational
advocacy event of the Global Movement for Active Ageing, to enhance
the health of older persons and their communities (http://www.who.int/hpr/ageing).
The Global Embrace consists of a chain of locally organized walks
and celebrations, encircling the globe during a 24-hour period,
drawing attention to the health benefits of walking and physical
activity while providing enjoyment to all generations. This year's
events will be held in conjunction with the World Heart Day (http://www.worldheartday.com/Home/index.asp).
URBAN WALKING KIT: The SC Coalition for Promoting
Physical Activity (SCCPPA) believes that communities should provide
supportive environments for physical activity. But until those places
are widely available, you can practice "safe steps" using
the "Official Urban Walking Kit." Created by SCCPPA's
past president Regina Fields, the tongue-in-cheek kit contains a
fluorescent light stick (for use in poorly lighted places), sidewalk
chalk (to draw crosswalks where needed), a whistle (to get drivers'
attention as you cross the street), a surgical mask (to protect
you from air pollution), a wrist-wallet (for cab fare in case you
get stranded in an unsafe place), and a notepad and pen (to write
down unsafe walking conditions so you can report them to city council
when you get home). Happy trails!
WALK TO SCHOOL DAY: October 2 is International Walk
to School Day. Last year nearly 3 million people from 21 countries
walked to school together on Walk to School Day, all hoping to create
communities that are safe places to walk. For more information,
go to the international site at http://www.iwalktoschool.org/
or the US site at http://www.walktoschool-usa.org/.
For a list of additional PA related observances and
events, visit the PA links section of our website at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu/PAlinks/index.html.
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON
"IMPACT" BILL: Sen. Bill Frist of Tennessee,
the only physician in the US Senate, introduced the "Improved
Nutrition and Physical Activity Act" or the "IMPACT Act"
on July 30, 2002. The purpose of the bill is "to establish
grants to provide health services for improved nutrition, increased
physical activity, obesity prevention, and for other purposes."
There were 8 original co-sponsors: Senators Bingaman (NM), Clinton
(NY), Dewine (OH), Dodd (CT), Lugar (IN), Murray (WA), Stevens (AK),
and Warner (VA). Sen. Inouye (HI) signed on as a sponsor on Sept.
4. The bill has been referred to the Senate Committee on Health,
Education, Labor, and Pensions. If passed as is, the IMPACT Act
would provide $10 million per year beginning in FY2003 for several
initiatives including local community grants, funds for state departments
of education to implement coordinated school health programs, and
funds to assist CDC and state health departments to promote healthy
eating and PA. For the full text of the bill, go to http://thomas.loc.gov
and search for bill S.2821. Information about which Senators are
members of the Committee is available at the same website.
PUBLIC INPUT ON TEA-21 REAUTHORIZATION: The U.S. Department of
Transportation is soliciting input from the public as part of reauthorizing
the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). TEA-21
includes funding provisions for recreational trails, pedestrian
and bicycle facilities, and alternative transportation. Input will
be accepted until January 1, 2003. Comments may be submitted online
or by mail to: Docket Clerk, U.S.DOT, Room PL-401, Docket Number
OST-2002-12170, 400 Seventh St., SW, Washington, DC 20590. Comments
should be categorized in the areas of Environment, Public Transportation,
Planning, Safety, Transportation Data, Freight Issues, Security,
Finance, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Research/Technology/Education;
comments will be forwarded to Task Forces according to the category.
Questions about the public input process can be directed to U.S.
DOT at 1-800-647-5527. (Source: "Alliance for a New Transportation
Charter" Action Alert, http://www.transact.org/ANTC/about.asp.)
AMERICA BIKES: America Bikes is a "coalition of individuals,
businesses and organizations working to include good bicycle provisions
in the 2003 federal transportation funding legislation." The
America Bikes advocacy agenda has three major emphases: Provide
Safe Routes to School; Create a Bicycle-friendly Transportation
System; and Strengthen Enhancements, CMAQ, and other TEA-21 Programs.
On the coalition's website, http://www.americabikes.org,
advocates can sign up to receive regular updates and action alerts.
America Bikes also has asked House and Senate candidates to share
their views on bicycling issues and is posting results from the
survey on the site as responses are received.
BARRIERS TO WALKING/CYCLING TO SCHOOL: A recent study
from the CDC analyzed data from the national HealthStyles Survey
to examine why most children do not walk or bike to school. Nineteen
percent of respondents reported that their youngest child walked
to school and 6% rode a bike. Collectively, these trips comprised
14% of the children's trips to school. The most common barriers
to walking or biking to school were long distances (55%) and traffic
danger (40%). Other barriers included adverse weather conditions,
crime danger, and opposing school policy. CDC. "Barriers to
Children Walking and Biking to School - United States, 1999."
MMWR 51(32):701-704, 2002. On the web at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5132a1.htm.
SCHOOL TRAVEL IN GEORGIA: Data from the Georgia Asthma Survey were
analyzed to examine modes of transportation to school in Georgia.
Results revealed that 4% of children between the ages of 5-15 walked
to school most days of the week, 49% rode the bus and 43% were driven
to school by an adult. Only 19% of the children who lived within
one mile of school walked to school most days of the week. CDC.
"School Transportation Modes - Georgia, 2000." MMWR 51(32):704-705,
2002. On the web at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5132a2.htm.
PERCEPTIONS OF PA AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN: Six focus groups
were conducted with African-American women residing in SC to explore
their perceptions of physical activity (PA), barriers, and enablers.
The 42 women (age 19-51) initially associated PA with structured
activities but when prompted were able to identify lifestyle physical
activities. Participants also associated being "busy"
with PA even if activities did not involve physical movement. Participants
associated negative attributes to sedentary African-American women
and positive attributes to active African-American women. They also
believed that one could be fit and overweight and that fitness and
overweight were not necessarily related. Wilcox, Richter, Henderson,
Greaney, & Ainsworth. "Perceptions of physical activity
and personal barriers and enablers in African-American women."
Ethnicity and Disease, 12: 353-362, 2002.
LEISURE-TIME PA AMONG ADOLESCENTS: Results from a 10-year prospective
study showed that leisure-time PA levels decrease among adolescent
girls. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and
Health Study followed 2379 girls from ages 9 or 10 to ages 18 or
19. By ages 16 or 17, 56% of the black girls and 31% of the white
girls reported no regular leisure-time PA. A higher body mass index
was associated with greater declines in activity for both races.
Pregnancy was associated with a decline in PA levels among black
girls, while smoking was associated with a decline among white girls.
In addition, low levels of parental education were associated with
declines in activity at older and younger ages for white girls but
only at older ages for black girls. Kimm, Glynn, Kriska, et al.
"Decline in Physical Activity in Black Girls and White Girls
during Adolescence." The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(10):709-715,
WALKING & VIGOROUS EXERCISE: The effects of walking and vigorous
exercise on the incidence of coronary and cardiovascular events
were explored in 73,743 postmenopausal women (age 50-79) in the
Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. A higher weekly energy
expenditure score (expressed as a total MET score) showed a strong
inverse relationship with both coronary and cardiovascular events.
Women who walked or exercised vigorously for at least 2.5 hours
per week had a 30% risk reduction for a cardiovascular event. Risk
reductions for coronary and cardiovascular events were similar for
both walking and vigorous exercise. The relationship between physical
activity and risk reduction was similar for white women and black
women, as well as for different ages and body mass indices. Walking
intensity and time spent sitting also were significantly related
to cardiovascular event risk. Manson, Greenland, LaCroix et al.
"Walking Compared with Vigorous Exercise for the Prevention
of Cardiovascular Events in Women." The New England Journal
of Medicine, 347(10):716-725, 2002.
For additional summaries of recent research on promoting physical
activity, visit the Research Updates section of our website at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu/updates/index.htm.
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES
60 MINUTES A DAY: A new report from the National Academies'
Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends 60 minutes of physical activity
per day (twice the daily goal recommended by the CDC & ACSM).
The IOM report, titled "Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy,
Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Protein and Amino Acids," establishes
new recommendations for daily energy and nutrition needs while minimizing
risk for chronic disease. According to the press release, adults
and children (regardless of weight) should spend a total of at least
one hour each day in moderately intense physical activity to maintain
cardiovascular health at a maximal level. Read the press release
The full report is available from the National Academy Press, (800)
624-6242, or http://www.nap.edu.
STATE LEGISLATION RELATED TO PA & NUTRITION: For a list of
state legislation related to PA and nutrition, visit the website
of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) at http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/phyact.htm.
The site has additional links and resources of interest to PA and
nutrition policy makers. (From CenterLines, the e-newsletter of
the National Center for Bicycling & Walking.)
HEALTH CARE PROVIDER COUNSELING FOR PA: The U.S. Preventive Services
Task Force has issued a recommendation titled "Behavioral Counseling
for Physical Activity," published in the August 6 issue of
Annals of Internal Medicine. The Task Force (sponsored by the Agency
for Healthcare Research and Quality) found mixed or inconclusive
evidence regarding the role of primary care providers in motivating
adult patients and recommended more research. There are a few multi-component
interventions that the Task Force feels are promising approaches
to encouraging adults to exercise, including patient goal setting,
written exercise prescriptions, individually tailored physical activity
regimens, and telephone follow-up. In addition, the Task Force notes
that linking primary care patients to community programs, targeting
groups rather than individuals, may be a helpful approach. The recommendations
and a summary of the evidence are found on the AHRQ website:
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral Counseling in
Primary Care to Promote Physical Activity: Recommendations and Rationale.
July 2002. Originally in Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;137:205-7.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/physactivity/physactrr.htm
Eden KB, Orleans CT, Mulrow CD, Pender NJ, Teutsch SM. Does Counseling
by Clinicians Improve Physical Activity? Summary of the Evidence
for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Originally in Annals
of Internal Medicine 2002;137:208-15. Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/physactivity/physsum.htm.
Another systematic review of the literature, conducted by Canadian
researchers was recently published in the Canadian Family Physician.
See Petrella & Lattanzio. "Does counseling help patients
get active? Systematic review of the literature." Originally
in Canadian Family Physician 2002;48:72-80. http://www.cfpc.ca/English/cfpc/programs/patient
care/physical activity/cme/articles counseling/default.asp
PA AND HEALTH STRATEGY (CANADA): The College of Family Physicians
of Canada (CFPC) has developed a Physical Activity and Health Strategy
to help family doctors help their patients build physical activity
into their daily lives. The Strategy also recognizes the importance
of promoting active transportation policies by encouraging city
planners, health professionals and municipal leaders to work together
to design urban and suburban communities that support active living
environments. Dr. Andrew Pipe of the CFPC recently presented "Sustainable
Community Development: Why It's Good for Health" at the Federation
for Canadian Municipalities conference and at the Canadian Urban
Transit Association. The PowerPoint presentation and Dr. Pipe's
speech can be found at http://www.cfpc.ca/English/cfpc/programs/patient
CHANGING THE WAY WE AGE: In July, the International Council on
Active Aging (ICAA) launched a $500,000 media program to support
President George Bush's HealthierUS Initiative. "Changing the
Way We Age" will educate the media about the concept and process
of active aging. The media support program will provide the media
with access to the latest cutting-edge information and groundbreaking
research, while educating them about how that research can apply
to an aging population. For more information, visit the ICAA website
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES
SAFE ROUTES TO SCHOOL IN DELAWARE: According to an
AP Press Release, Gov. Ruth Ann Minner signed legislation on Sept.
10, authorizing the Delaware Department of Transportation to establish
and administer a "Safe Routes to School" program using
federal transportation funds. Under the new law, the DOT will make
grants available to schools and school districts through a statewide
competition. Proposals must identify safety hazards as well as current
and potential walking and bicycling routes. They will be rated on
their potential for reducing child injuries and fatalities and encouraging
increased walking and bicycling.
AIM 2010: Americans in Motion 2010 (AIM 2010) is recruiting community
coalitions to conduct a media-based/internet physical activity behavior
change campaign in the spring of 2003. Community coalitions will
have access to the Take Charge Challenge website for recruiting
social systems (worksites, schools, churches, senior centers, etc.),
data collection, report generation, incentives sales, and communication.
The TCC website will allow coalitions to generate income to support
the campaign. Monthly conference calls are being hosted by CDC's
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity to provide technical
assistance to coalitions that are interested in participating. Both
the http://www.Takechargechallenge.org and
the AIM2010 web sites are under construction. For more information,
contact Bruce Leonard at firstname.lastname@example.org
or (770) 978-2289.
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
ASHC ANNUAL MEETING: The 76th Annual Meeting of the
American School Health Conference, "Advocacy for Student Health
and School Success," will be held October 2-5, in Charlotte,
CDC WOMEN'S HEALTH CONFERENCE: "Advancing the Health of Women:
Prevention, Practice, and Policy" will meet October 7-9 in
Atlanta, GA. (http://www.cdc.gov/od/spotlight/wmconf/index.htm)
COOPER INSTITUTE PROGRAMS: The Cooper Institute Workshop, "Developing
Lifestyle Physical Activity Programs" will occur Oct. 14-16
in Dallas TX, followed by the conference series, "Physical
Activity: Preventing Physical Disability in Older Adults" on
October 17-19. (http://www.cooperinst.org/sciconf.asp, Phone: (972)
For a more complete list of conferences and workshops, visit the
PA links section of our website at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu/PAlinks/index.html.
Writers: Delores Pluto, Regina Fields, Tracy Pearch
This and past issues of the "University of South
Carolina Prevention Research Center Notes" are available at
our website. If you would like to submit an item, please send it
to Delores Pluto at email@example.com.
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Instructions are located on our website, at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu.
The USC Prevention Research Center is a member of
the CDC Prevention Research Center's National Network, consisting
of 26 Centers in the US. For more information about the PRC National
Network, visit http://www.cdc.gov/prc/index.htm.
Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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