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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health Through Physical Activity"

Greetings from the faculty and staff in the USC Prevention Research Center (PRC). As one of 26 PRCs in the US, our mission is to translate research into public health practice. We do this by building linkages between universities and communities that can benefit the greatest from our research efforts. An ideal academic-community partnership is where research and dissemination projects are shared with community groups on topics of concern to them. In South Carolina, we are working with members of our state and local health departments, interest groups, and our Governor's Council on Physical Fitness to enhance environmental supports for physical activity. I encourage you to consider a participatory research model by sharing your research and dissemination activities with people outside the academic community. It makes research rewarding and meaningful in more ways than you can imagine. Thanks for letting us share our newsletter with you and best wishes for an active fall season.

Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Delores Pluto, Newsletter Editor (dmpluto@sc.edu)
http://prevention.sph.sc.edu
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IN THIS ISSUE - October 2001

NEWS YOU CAN USE: World Run Day

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON: PEP Grant Winners, Federal Funding for Public Health Programs

RESEARCH NOTES: PA and Cognitive Decline in Older Women, Exercise as Anti-Depressant, Measuring PA in Older Adults, Physical Activity Outcomes of CHAMPS II

REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: Chronic Disease Prevention Databases, Shape of the Nation, Urban Sprawl and Public Health, International Physical Activity Questionnaires, PA Across the Lifespan, Fit Society Page, Increasing Physical Activity, National Bone Health Campaign

PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES: Creating Communities for Active Aging, Trail Resources, Corporate-University Collaboration, Charlotte Gets First Bike Route

UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: Whistler 2001 Rescheduled, Community-Campus Partnerships for Health

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NEWS YOU CAN USE

WORLD RUN DAY: On November 11th, 2001, runners are joining together for World Run Day, the global fitness and charity challenge. Anyone can participate and run any distance they desire and donate to any charity they choose. All donations (100%) go directly to charity. There is a registration fee that funds t-shirts and advertising. World Run Day funds all other costs. For registration, more information on the activities, or how to initiate activities in your area, go to http://www.runday.com/registration2000.htm.

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON

PEP GRANT WINNERS: The US Department of Education has announced the FY2001 awards under the Physical Education for Progress grant program. The PEP grants support innovative approaches to equipping students with the knowledge and skills for lifelong health and physical activity. See a description of the winning programs at http://www.ed.gov/programs/whitephysed/grants2001.doc.

FEDERAL FUNDING FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMS: The U.S. Congress continues to consider funding for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for fiscal year 2002, in the FY 2002 Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations bill. The House of Representatives has finished action on the bill, which awaits full Senate consideration. After the Senate completes its work on the bill, a conference committee of House and Senate members will meet to finalize the appropriations levels. Currently there is a decrease slated for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion programs overall, but the House bill includes a $3 million increase for Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity programs, as well as increases for Diabetes and Heart Disease & Stroke programs. No increases or decreases are anticipated for the Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant, which funds many state health department physical activity programs.


RESEARCH NOTES

PA AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN OLDER WOMEN: This study examined the association between physical activity behavior and cognitive decline over an 8-year period in a community-dwelling population of older women without baseline cognitive or physical impairments. Physical activity during the preceding year (blocks walked, flights of stair climbed, and recreational/daily activity levels) and current cognitive functioning (concentration, language, and memory components) were assessed at baseline, and cognitive function was reassessed 6-8 years later. The number of blocks walked per week and total kilocalories expended per week at baseline were associated with a lower likelihood of experiencing cognitive decline at follow-up, even after controlling for age, education level, comorbid conditions, smoking status, estrogen use, and functional limitations. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity can prevent cognitive impairments which are experienced by at least 10% of persons over 65 years and 50% of those over 85 years of age. See Yaffe, et al. "A Prospective Study of Physical Activity and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women: Women Who Walk." Archives of Internal Medicine, 161:1703-1708, 2001.

EXERCISE AS ANTIDEPRESSANT: This randomized control trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of unsupervised exercise as a long-term treatment for clinical depression in at community-dwelling sample of older adults with minor and major depressive symptoms. Subjects were randomly assigned to an "Exercise" group (engaged in 10 weeks of supervised weightlifting exercise followed by 10 weeks of similar unsupervised exercise) or a "Control" group (attended 10 weeks of health lectures). Measures of psychological symptoms (depression, morale, and self-efficacy for jogging) were collected at baseline and at the end of the 10th and 20th week of the study. A 26-month follow-up interview was also conducted to measure depression and physical activity habits. An antidepressant effect of exercise was identified at 10 weeks and maintained at 20 weeks (following the change to unsupervised exercise in a gym or home setting). Differences in depressive symptoms between controls and exercisers were maintained at the 26 month follow-up, with 33% of exercisers maintaining target activity levels. See Singh et al. "The Efficacy of Exercise as a Long-term Antidepressant in Elderly Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled Trial." Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 56A(8):M497-M504, 2001.

MEASURING PA IN OLDER ADULTS: A number of recent articles have looked at instruments for measuring physical activity in older adults. The CHAMPS survey was developed to evaluate the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) (see below). This questionnaire assesses the weekly frequency and duration of activities typically performed by older adults and targeted by intervention programs. Analyses of the survey's validity, reliability and sensitivity are provided and appear promising for use with this growing population. See Stewart et al. "CHAMPS Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Adults: Outcomes for Interventions." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(7):1126-1141, 2001. This survey has also been evaluated in other research projects along with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), the Physical Activity Survey for the Elderly (PASE), the Stanford 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and other physical activity measures. See Young et al. " A Comparison of the Yale Physical Activity Survey with other Physical Activity Measures." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6):955-961, 2001 and Harada et al. "An Evaluation of Three Self-Report Physical Activity Instruments for Older Adults." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6): 962-970, 2001.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OUTCOMES OF CHAMPS II: The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle physical activity promotion program among older adults. The program was based on a personal choice model to promote physical activity among subgroups of individuals who are more likely to have problems changing their daily physical activity behavior (e.g. completely sedentary, overweight individuals). The program drew upon social cognitive theory and included principles of self-efficacy enhancement, readiness to change, and motivational techniques. Physical activity regimens were individually tailored by participants with the assistance of trained staff who promoted activities that could be maintained throughout a lifetime, taking into account health problems, personal activity preferences, and other factors influencing maintenance. Results of the 1-year program showed significant increases in moderate-to-vigorous activities and activities of any intensity, compared to control group participants. The program was especially beneficial for overweight individuals, women, participants age 75 and over, and those who did not set aside time to exercise at baseline. See Stewart et al. "Physical Activity Outcomes of CHAMPS II: A Physical Activity Promotion Program for Older Adults. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 56A(8):M465-M470, 2001.

For additional summaries of recent research on promoting physically active lifestyles in community settings, view the Research Updates at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu.


REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES

CHRONIC DISEASE PREVENTION DATABASES: The CDC website now offers a set of databases with information on health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Bibliographic citations and abstracts of journal articles, monographs, book chapters, reports, curricular materials, fact sheets, and proceedings are included in the database. For more information, go to http://www.cdc.gov/cdp.

SHAPE OF THE NATION: The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recently released the "Shape of the Nation Report" on the status of physical education in American schools. The report is based on a survey conducted by NASPE plus information from the 2000 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) and the 1999 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (YRBSS). The executive summary can be accessed on the web at www.aahperd.org/naspe. Copies of the complete report with state descriptions (stock no. 304-10255) can be ordered by calling 1-800-321-0789. The cost is $10 ($5 for NASPE/AAHPERD members).

INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRES (IPAQ): The IPAQ were developed to aid in standardized global assessment of health-related physical activity. Short and long questionnaires are available to use in population-based national surveys. Development and background information and the questionnaires are available at http://www.ipaq.ki.se.

PA ACROSS THE LIFESPAN: The September 2001 edition of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Digest presents issues related to tracking physical activity and reviews longitudinal studies that measure indicators of physical activity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. This and past issues of the Digest are found on President's Council website under Resources: http://www.indiana.edu/~preschal.

FIT SOCIETY PAGE is a free, quarterly newsletter published by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). The Fall 2001 issue contains articles on overcoming barriers to exercise, the importance of exercise for children with mental retardation, and dispelling myths on exercise within the aging community. The current issue is available at http://www.acsm.org/publications/newsletters.htm.

INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services were released in the October 26th MMWR Recommendations and Reports (Volume 50, Number RR-18). This report presents evidence on the effectiveness of population-based interventions that have been used in communities to promote increased levels of physical activity. View this MMWR at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5018.pdf or http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5018a1.htm.
The Guide to Community Preventive Services website is http://www.thecommunityguide.org

NATIONAL BONE HEALTH CAMPAIGN: The National Bone Health Campaign (NBHC) promotes optimal bone health among girls aged 9-12 years in an effort to reduce their risk of osteoporosis later in life. The campaign, which focuses on increasing calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity, includes print materials, participation in the Radio Disney Live World Tour, collaboration with government and nonprofit organizations (e.g., state health departments and the Girl Scouts of the USA), print and radio advertisements for girls and parents, and a website at http://www.cdc.gov/powerfulbones. Founding partners of the campaign are the Dept. of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. More information about the campaign is available through the CDC Div. of Nutrition and Physical Activity's website, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bonehealth/index.htm.


PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES

CREATING COMMUNITIES FOR ACTIVE AGING is a new guide from Partnership for Prevention for strategic planning to increase activity among older adults. The guide takes the reader through the steps in developing a strategic plan, including setting short and long-term goals, involving partners, assessing the community, setting priorities, developing strategies, and measuring progress. It also offers suggestions for identifying personal and environmental barriers and contributing factors for being active. The catalog of proven and promising strategies for creating active communities can be used with any population. These include strategies in the areas of community design, civic engagement, education, government policy change, information, pedestrian and bicycle facilities, and traffic and transit. "Creating Communities for Active Aging" is available at www.prevent.org or can be ordered by sending an e-mail to info@prevent.org.

TRAIL RESOURCES: The Iowa Department of Transportation has produced two new handbooks for people interested in trail building and development. While the intended audiences are communities and agencies throughout the State of Iowa, the handbooks are excellent resources for all. "Development of Trail-Based Economic Development Programs" outlines ways to capitalize on the economic development potential associated with both new and existing trails. "A Handbook for Local Communities: Connecting People and Trails: Local Community Planning for Bicyclists and Pedestrians" outlines the steps and resources required to create a comprehensive system of bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Links to both handbooks are at http://www.iowadot.gov/iowabikes/trails/.

CORPORATE-UNIVERSITY COLLABORATION: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan (the Blues) has a long-standing partnership with the University of Michigan to improve the health of Michigan's children through the Fitness for Youth Program. The University began the program in 1983 and gained the funding support from the Blues in 1985. The Blues decided to fund the program out of concern about the rising health care costs and potential increases in costs due to the decline of youth fitness and school PE programs. The program has grown from 13 schools in 1983 to almost 400 schools today. For more information on this successful collaboration, see http://www.fitnessforyouth.umich.edu/index.html

CHARLOTTE GETS FIRST BIKE ROUTE: Charlotte city planners have designated an 11-mile bicycle route, which travels streets through more than a dozen south Charlotte neighborhoods, focusing on the Park Road Shopping Center. A little footbridge not shown on street maps allows cyclists from South Boulevard neighborhoods to reach the shopping center, Queens College, Freedom Park and Little Sugar Creek Greenway. To the read the full story published in the "Charlotte Observer," go to http://www.charlotte.com

URBAN SPRAWL AND PUBLIC HEALTH was the topic of the October Health and Environment Electronic Seminar. The presentation discussed a number of impacts of sprawl on public health including increased air pollution, lower physical activity, increased injury levels, and a reduction in social capital. A copy of the presentation slides is available at http://www.astho.org/index.php?template=pubs.php.


UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS

WHISTLER 2001 RESCHEDULED: "Whistler 2001: Communicating Physical Activity and Health Messages - Science Into Practice," sponsored by the CDC and Health Canada, has been rescheduled to take place December 8-12, 2001, at Whistler British Columbia. The conference will examine the consensus report of the 2000 Dose-Response Symposium with a view to developing future communication strategies, tools, and health related messages pertaining to physical activity. Participants will include government employees responsible for physical activity policies and programs, employees of NGOs that deliver community level programs, and community public health officials.

COMMUNITY-CAMPUS PARTNERSHIPS FOR HEALTH (CCPH): The 6th annual CCPH conference, "The Partnership as the Leverage Point for Change," will be held May 4-7, 2002, in Miami, Florida. More than 500 conference participants are expected to attend for presentations and discussions about partnerships and issues such as leadership & governance, assessment & improvement, principles & best practices, outcomes, and community-based participatory research.

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Writers: Delores Pluto, Ralph Welsh, Lillian Smith, Regina Fields

This and past issues of the "University of South Carolina Prevention Research Center Notes" are available at our website. If you have an item you'd like to submit, please send it to Delores Pluto at dmpluto@sc.edu.

To subscribe or unsubscribe to this newsletter, e-mail the Prevention Research Center at USCPRC@gwm.sc.edu. When subscribing, please include your name, e-mail address, title, and organizational affiliation. There is no subscription cost.

For continuing discussions about physical activity and public health, visit our website, http://prevention.sph.sc.edu, for instructions on joining one of our listservs.

The USC Prevention Research Center is a member of the CDC Prevention Research Center's National Network, consisting of 24 Centers in the U.S. For more information about the PRC National Network, visit http://www.cdc.gov/prc/.
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Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
803-777-4253

Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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