UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health Through Physical Activity"
Greetings from the faculty and staff in the USC Prevention Research
Center (PRC). As one of 26 PRCs in the US, our mission is to translate
research into public health practice. We do this by building linkages
between universities and communities that can benefit the greatest
from our research efforts. An ideal academic-community partnership
is where research and dissemination projects are shared with community
groups on topics of concern to them. In South Carolina, we are working
with members of our state and local health departments, interest
groups, and our Governor's Council on Physical Fitness to enhance
environmental supports for physical activity. I encourage you to
consider a participatory research model by sharing your research
and dissemination activities with people outside the academic community.
It makes research rewarding and meaningful in more ways than you
can imagine. Thanks for letting us share our newsletter with you
and best wishes for an active fall season.
Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Delores Pluto, Newsletter Editor (email@example.com)
IN THIS ISSUE - October 2001
NEWS YOU CAN USE: World Run Day
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON: PEP Grant Winners, Federal Funding
for Public Health Programs
RESEARCH NOTES: PA and Cognitive Decline in Older Women, Exercise
as Anti-Depressant, Measuring PA in Older Adults, Physical Activity
Outcomes of CHAMPS II
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: Chronic Disease Prevention
Databases, Shape of the Nation, Urban Sprawl and Public Health,
International Physical Activity Questionnaires, PA Across the Lifespan,
Fit Society Page, Increasing Physical Activity, National Bone Health
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES: Creating Communities for Active Aging,
Trail Resources, Corporate-University Collaboration, Charlotte Gets
First Bike Route
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: Whistler 2001 Rescheduled,
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health
NEWS YOU CAN USE
WORLD RUN DAY: On November 11th, 2001, runners are joining together
for World Run Day, the global fitness and charity challenge. Anyone
can participate and run any distance they desire and donate to any
charity they choose. All donations (100%) go directly to charity.
There is a registration fee that funds t-shirts and advertising.
World Run Day funds all other costs. For registration, more information
on the activities, or how to initiate activities in your area, go
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON
PEP GRANT WINNERS: The US Department of Education has announced
the FY2001 awards under the Physical Education for Progress grant
program. The PEP grants support innovative approaches to equipping
students with the knowledge and skills for lifelong health and physical
activity. See a description of the winning programs at http://www.ed.gov/programs/whitephysed/grants2001.doc.
FEDERAL FUNDING FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMS: The U.S. Congress continues
to consider funding for the Department of Health and Human Services
(HHS) for fiscal year 2002, in the FY 2002 Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations
bill. The House of Representatives has finished action on the bill,
which awaits full Senate consideration. After the Senate completes
its work on the bill, a conference committee of House and Senate
members will meet to finalize the appropriations levels. Currently
there is a decrease slated for the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention's Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion programs
overall, but the House bill includes a $3 million increase for Nutrition,
Physical Activity and Obesity programs, as well as increases for
Diabetes and Heart Disease & Stroke programs. No increases or
decreases are anticipated for the Preventive Health and Health Services
Block Grant, which funds many state health department physical activity
PA AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN OLDER WOMEN: This study examined the
association between physical activity behavior and cognitive decline
over an 8-year period in a community-dwelling population of older
women without baseline cognitive or physical impairments. Physical
activity during the preceding year (blocks walked, flights of stair
climbed, and recreational/daily activity levels) and current cognitive
functioning (concentration, language, and memory components) were
assessed at baseline, and cognitive function was reassessed 6-8
years later. The number of blocks walked per week and total kilocalories
expended per week at baseline were associated with a lower likelihood
of experiencing cognitive decline at follow-up, even after controlling
for age, education level, comorbid conditions, smoking status, estrogen
use, and functional limitations. These findings support the hypothesis
that physical activity can prevent cognitive impairments which are
experienced by at least 10% of persons over 65 years and 50% of
those over 85 years of age. See Yaffe, et al. "A Prospective
Study of Physical Activity and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women:
Women Who Walk." Archives of Internal Medicine, 161:1703-1708,
EXERCISE AS ANTIDEPRESSANT: This randomized control trial examined
the feasibility and efficacy of unsupervised exercise as a long-term
treatment for clinical depression in at community-dwelling sample
of older adults with minor and major depressive symptoms. Subjects
were randomly assigned to an "Exercise" group (engaged
in 10 weeks of supervised weightlifting exercise followed by 10
weeks of similar unsupervised exercise) or a "Control"
group (attended 10 weeks of health lectures). Measures of psychological
symptoms (depression, morale, and self-efficacy for jogging) were
collected at baseline and at the end of the 10th and 20th week of
the study. A 26-month follow-up interview was also conducted to
measure depression and physical activity habits. An antidepressant
effect of exercise was identified at 10 weeks and maintained at
20 weeks (following the change to unsupervised exercise in a gym
or home setting). Differences in depressive symptoms between controls
and exercisers were maintained at the 26 month follow-up, with 33%
of exercisers maintaining target activity levels. See Singh et al.
"The Efficacy of Exercise as a Long-term Antidepressant in
Elderly Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled Trial." Journal
of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 56A(8):M497-M504, 2001.
MEASURING PA IN OLDER ADULTS: A number of recent articles have
looked at instruments for measuring physical activity in older adults.
The CHAMPS survey was developed to evaluate the Community Healthy
Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) (see below). This
questionnaire assesses the weekly frequency and duration of activities
typically performed by older adults and targeted by intervention
programs. Analyses of the survey's validity, reliability and sensitivity
are provided and appear promising for use with this growing population.
See Stewart et al. "CHAMPS Physical Activity Questionnaire
for Older Adults: Outcomes for Interventions." Medicine and
Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(7):1126-1141, 2001. This survey
has also been evaluated in other research projects along with the
Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), the Physical Activity Survey
for the Elderly (PASE), the Stanford 7-day physical activity recall
(PAR), and other physical activity measures. See Young et al. "
A Comparison of the Yale Physical Activity Survey with other Physical
Activity Measures." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,
33(6):955-961, 2001 and Harada et al. "An Evaluation of Three
Self-Report Physical Activity Instruments for Older Adults."
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6): 962-970, 2001.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OUTCOMES OF CHAMPS II: The Community Healthy
Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) examined the effectiveness
of a lifestyle physical activity promotion program among older adults.
The program was based on a personal choice model to promote physical
activity among subgroups of individuals who are more likely to have
problems changing their daily physical activity behavior (e.g. completely
sedentary, overweight individuals). The program drew upon social
cognitive theory and included principles of self-efficacy enhancement,
readiness to change, and motivational techniques. Physical activity
regimens were individually tailored by participants with the assistance
of trained staff who promoted activities that could be maintained
throughout a lifetime, taking into account health problems, personal
activity preferences, and other factors influencing maintenance.
Results of the 1-year program showed significant increases in moderate-to-vigorous
activities and activities of any intensity, compared to control
group participants. The program was especially beneficial for overweight
individuals, women, participants age 75 and over, and those who
did not set aside time to exercise at baseline. See Stewart et al.
"Physical Activity Outcomes of CHAMPS II: A Physical Activity
Promotion Program for Older Adults. Journal of Gerontology: Medical
Sciences, 56A(8):M465-M470, 2001.
For additional summaries of recent research on promoting
physically active lifestyles in community settings, view the Research
Updates at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu.
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES
CHRONIC DISEASE PREVENTION DATABASES: The CDC website now offers
a set of databases with information on health promotion and chronic
disease prevention. Bibliographic citations and abstracts of journal
articles, monographs, book chapters, reports, curricular materials,
fact sheets, and proceedings are included in the database. For more
information, go to http://www.cdc.gov/cdp.
SHAPE OF THE NATION: The National Association for Sport and Physical
Education (NASPE) recently released the "Shape of the Nation
Report" on the status of physical education in American schools.
The report is based on a survey conducted by NASPE plus information
from the 2000 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS)
and the 1999 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (YRBSS).
The executive summary can be accessed on the web at www.aahperd.org/naspe.
Copies of the complete report with state descriptions (stock no.
304-10255) can be ordered by calling 1-800-321-0789. The cost is
$10 ($5 for NASPE/AAHPERD members).
INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRES (IPAQ): The IPAQ
were developed to aid in standardized global assessment of health-related
physical activity. Short and long questionnaires are available to
use in population-based national surveys. Development and background
information and the questionnaires are available at http://www.ipaq.ki.se.
PA ACROSS THE LIFESPAN: The September 2001 edition of the President's
Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Digest presents issues related
to tracking physical activity and reviews longitudinal studies that
measure indicators of physical activity in childhood, adolescence,
and adulthood. This and past issues of the Digest are found on President's
Council website under Resources: http://www.indiana.edu/~preschal.
FIT SOCIETY PAGE is a free, quarterly newsletter published by the
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). The Fall 2001 issue
contains articles on overcoming barriers to exercise, the importance
of exercise for children with mental retardation, and dispelling
myths on exercise within the aging community. The current issue
is available at http://www.acsm.org/publications/newsletters.htm.
INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Recommendations of the Task Force
on Community Preventive Services were released in the October 26th
MMWR Recommendations and Reports (Volume 50, Number RR-18). This
report presents evidence on the effectiveness of population-based
interventions that have been used in communities to promote increased
levels of physical activity. View this MMWR at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5018.pdf
The Guide to Community Preventive Services website is http://www.thecommunityguide.org
NATIONAL BONE HEALTH CAMPAIGN: The National Bone Health Campaign
(NBHC) promotes optimal bone health among girls aged 9-12 years
in an effort to reduce their risk of osteoporosis later in life.
The campaign, which focuses on increasing calcium intake and weight-bearing
physical activity, includes print materials, participation in the
Radio Disney Live World Tour, collaboration with government and
nonprofit organizations (e.g., state health departments and the
Girl Scouts of the USA), print and radio advertisements for girls
and parents, and a website at http://www.cdc.gov/powerfulbones.
Founding partners of the campaign are the Dept. of Health and Human
Services' Office on Women's Health, the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. More information
about the campaign is available through the CDC Div. of Nutrition
and Physical Activity's website, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bonehealth/index.htm.
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES
CREATING COMMUNITIES FOR ACTIVE AGING is a new guide from Partnership
for Prevention for strategic planning to increase activity among
older adults. The guide takes the reader through the steps in developing
a strategic plan, including setting short and long-term goals, involving
partners, assessing the community, setting priorities, developing
strategies, and measuring progress. It also offers suggestions for
identifying personal and environmental barriers and contributing
factors for being active. The catalog of proven and promising strategies
for creating active communities can be used with any population.
These include strategies in the areas of community design, civic
engagement, education, government policy change, information, pedestrian
and bicycle facilities, and traffic and transit. "Creating
Communities for Active Aging" is available at www.prevent.org
or can be ordered by sending an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
TRAIL RESOURCES: The Iowa Department of Transportation has produced
two new handbooks for people interested in trail building and development.
While the intended audiences are communities and agencies throughout
the State of Iowa, the handbooks are excellent resources for all.
"Development of Trail-Based Economic Development Programs"
outlines ways to capitalize on the economic development potential
associated with both new and existing trails. "A Handbook for
Local Communities: Connecting People and Trails: Local Community
Planning for Bicyclists and Pedestrians" outlines the steps
and resources required to create a comprehensive system of bicycle
and pedestrian facilities. Links to both handbooks are at http://www.iowadot.gov/iowabikes/trails/.
CORPORATE-UNIVERSITY COLLABORATION: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan
(the Blues) has a long-standing partnership with the University
of Michigan to improve the health of Michigan's children through
the Fitness for Youth Program. The University began the program
in 1983 and gained the funding support from the Blues in 1985. The
Blues decided to fund the program out of concern about the rising
health care costs and potential increases in costs due to the decline
of youth fitness and school PE programs. The program has grown from
13 schools in 1983 to almost 400 schools today. For more information
on this successful collaboration, see http://www.fitnessforyouth.umich.edu/index.html
CHARLOTTE GETS FIRST BIKE ROUTE: Charlotte city planners have designated
an 11-mile bicycle route, which travels streets through more than
a dozen south Charlotte neighborhoods, focusing on the Park Road
Shopping Center. A little footbridge not shown on street maps allows
cyclists from South Boulevard neighborhoods to reach the shopping
center, Queens College, Freedom Park and Little Sugar Creek Greenway.
To the read the full story published in the "Charlotte Observer,"
go to http://www.charlotte.com
URBAN SPRAWL AND PUBLIC HEALTH was the topic of the October Health
and Environment Electronic Seminar. The presentation discussed a
number of impacts of sprawl on public health including increased
air pollution, lower physical activity, increased injury levels,
and a reduction in social capital. A copy of the presentation slides
is available at http://www.astho.org/index.php?template=pubs.php.
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
WHISTLER 2001 RESCHEDULED: "Whistler 2001: Communicating Physical
Activity and Health Messages - Science Into Practice," sponsored
by the CDC and Health Canada, has been rescheduled to take place
December 8-12, 2001, at Whistler British Columbia. The conference
will examine the consensus report of the 2000 Dose-Response Symposium
with a view to developing future communication strategies, tools,
and health related messages pertaining to physical activity. Participants
will include government employees responsible for physical activity
policies and programs, employees of NGOs that deliver community
level programs, and community public health officials.
COMMUNITY-CAMPUS PARTNERSHIPS FOR HEALTH (CCPH): The 6th annual
CCPH conference, "The Partnership as the Leverage Point for
Change," will be held May 4-7, 2002, in Miami, Florida. More
than 500 conference participants are expected to attend for presentations
and discussions about partnerships and issues such as leadership
& governance, assessment & improvement, principles &
best practices, outcomes, and community-based participatory research.
Writers: Delores Pluto, Ralph Welsh, Lillian Smith, Regina
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The USC Prevention Research Center is a member of the CDC Prevention
Research Center's National Network, consisting of 24 Centers in
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Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention