UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health Through Physical Activity"
Seasons greetings from the faculty, staff, and students in the
Prevention Research Center. The end of 2001 brings to a close a
year of many highs and lows for the world, our nation, and each
of us personally. Thank you for your continued support of our Prevention
Research Center's efforts to increase understanding of the how policy
and environmental supports for physical activity can improve our
nation's health. We are delighted that you continue to receive and
read our newsletter and hope you find the information professionally
and personally interesting.
Best wishes for a happy and healthy 2002.
Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Delores Pluto, Newsletter Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org)
IN THIS ISSUE - November/December 2001
This issue includes a number of articles about work going on
outside the US. Thanks to our international readers who submitted
suggestions and information. - Editor
NEWS YOU CAN USE: Stay Active This Winter; Bikes Belong Awards
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON: Surgeon General's Call to Action
RESEARCH NOTES: Evaluation of Active for Life Program; Social Support
and PA; Neighborhood Hazards & Children's PA; PA Perceptions
Among Older Latino Adults
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: PA Interactive Health
Statistics; World Health Organization; PA and Quality of Life In
Older Adults; Sisters Together; Weight And Health Website
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES: Active Kids, Healthy Kids; Active
Living at Work; Push Play Day; 10,000 Steps Rockhampton; Supportive
Environments for Physical Activity; PA and Community Design; Built
Environment and Public Health
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: Developing Lifestyle Physical
Activity Programs; National Conference on Aging and Mobility
USC PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER UPDATE: Sumter Update
NEWS YOU CAN USE
STAY ACTIVE THIS WINTER: The winter edition of the "ACSM Fit
Society Page" focuses on "Winter Activities and Sports."
Articles offer suggestions for staying warm and dry, avoiding winter
hazards (like frostbite and hypothermia), and preventing injuries.
This free newsletter is available at http://www.acsm.org/publications/newsletters.htm.
BIKES BELONG AWARDS GRANT: Bikes Belong, an industry coalition
committed to putting more people on bicycles more often, recently
awarded a $10,000 grant to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance (BTA)
of Portland, Oregon. The grant will help fund a connector trail
leading from downtown Portland to 30 continuous miles of trail through
the city and into the foothills of Mount Hood. The BTA will also
use the grant to advocate for $4 million in TEA-21 money to build
three bridges over a creek, a major highway, and railroad tracks.
For more information on this and other projects and the Bikes Belong
Coalition grant program, go to their website at http://www.bikesbelong.org.
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON
SURGEON GENERAL'S CALL TO ACTION ON OBESITY: U.S. Health and Human
Services Secretary Tommy Thompson and Surgeon General David Satcher
released "The Surgeon General's Call To Action To Prevent and
Decrease Overweight and Obesity" at a press conference in Washington,
DC on Thursday, December 13, 2001. The document highlights the critical
nature of the epidemic of overweight and obesity, identifies crucial
priorities for action, and mobilizes national collaborative efforts
to address it. Some of the recommended strategies include requiring
PE in all school grades, providing more healthy food options at
schools, and providing safe and accessible recreation facilities
for people of all ages. The document and related fact sheets are
available at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/.
EVALUATION OF ACTIVE FOR LIFE PROGRAM (England): This study evaluated
the impact of a 3-year social marketing campaign aimed at increasing
knowledge, acceptability, and uptake of moderate PA recommendations
that were released in 1995. The ACTIVE for LIFE campaign utilized
social marketing tools such as advertising, public relations, and
publicity to communicate the recommendations to specific priority
groups. Over the course of the campaign a nationally representative
sample of English residents were surveyed for changes in awareness
and behavior. Results indicate that the comprehensive campaign targeting
moderate intensity activity was successful in increasing knowledge
of the new PA recommendations although no significant improvements
were seen in PA behavior during the measurement period. The authors
suggest that these results support the idea that it takes time to
affect ingrained social trends at a national level and future PA
campaigns may be more successful in changing behavior if they target
individuals ready to adopt moderate intensity PA. See Hillsdon,
Cavill, Nanchahal, et al. "National Level Promotion of Physical
Activity: Results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE Campaign."
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55:755-761, 2001.
SOCIAL SUPPORT AND PA (Canada): Canadian researchers examined the
relationship between general social support and levels of leisure
time physical activity among a sample of Ontario adults. General
social support measures included a) familial structure, b) social
quantity, c) functional support, and d) social frequency, while
leisure time physical activity was assessed with the Minnesota Leisure
Time Activity Questionnaire and expressed as daily energy expenditure.
Results indicate that social quantity (number of friends/ family
members) and social frequency (frequency of contact) were both associated
with higher levels of PA. Conversely, certain family structures
(based on marital/cohabitation and parental status) were associated
with lower levels of PA. These findings provide support for programs
and policies that aim to enhance PA by providing social interactions
for participants and support for individuals whose family circumstances
make PA participation difficult. See Spanier and Allison. "General
Social Support and Physical Activity: An Analysis of the Ontario
Health Survey." Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92(3):210-213,
NEIGHBORHOOD HAZARDS & CHILDREN'S PA (Northern California):
Researchers studied the relationship between the perceptions of
neighborhood hazards and physical activity, physical fitness, and
BMI in 796 fourth graders. Most of the children were Latino or Asian
and came from a variety of socioeconomic levels. Surveys asked the
children about neighborhood hazards (e.g., traffic, trash/litter,
crime, noise, gangs, access to parks, prejudice, and drugs) and
self-reported physical activity. The researchers found that lower
SES children perceived more neighborhood hazards, but contrary to
what was expected, this perception was not related to physical activity
level or physical fitness. In the higher SES children, the perception
of more hazards was actually associated with higher reported physical
activity. The authors comment that the measure of neighborhood hazards
may not have been sensitive enough because it assessed whether the
children thought the hazard was a problem in general, not whether
they were afraid of the hazard or whether the hazard prevented them
from playing outdoors. They also speculate that parents' perceptions
of neighborhood hazards might be more important than the children's
perceptions, because parents may limit their children's opportunities
for outdoor physical activity. See Romero, Robinson, Kraemer, et
al. "Are Perceived Neighborhood Hazards a Barrier to Physical
Activity in Children?" Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent
Medicine, 155:1143-1148, October 2001.
PA PERCEPTIONS AMONG OLDER LATINO ADULTS (Massachusetts): Researchers
utilized qualitative focus groups to examine the perceptions of
older Latino adults toward physical fitness, PA, and exercise. The
interview guide used in the focus group sessions elicited older
Latinos' perceptions of physical fitness, PA, and exercise; benefits
of PA and exercise; and barriers and facilitators to PA and exercise
participation. Key findings included: 1) physical fitness was viewed
as being able to do anything and the mind and body working together,
2) PA and exercise were viewed as interchangeable terms with participation
being viewed as providing mostly positive effects; 3) exercise and
PA were considered to be culturally inappropriate among older Latinos;
4) barriers to exercise included fear of PA within this population;
and 5) facilitators for PA and exercise included support and motivation
with support being expressed in terms of community resources, group
support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance. The authors
also suggest that determining an older Latino's readiness to undertake
a PA/exercise program should be a critical component of PA/exercise
counseling by health care providers. See Melillo, Williamson, Houde,
et al. "Perceptions of Exercise Among Older Latino Adults."
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 27(9):38-46, 2001.
For additional summaries of recent research on promoting physically
active lifestyles in community settings, look at the Research Updates
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES
PA INTERACTIVE HEALTH STATISTICS: CDC's Division of Nutrition and
Physical Activity recently added an interactive health statistics
section to their website. Find out how physical activity levels
in your state compare to the U.S. national average, changes in activity
level in the last few years, and health differences by gender, age,
race/ethnicity, and education level. Go to http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/stats/
to find out.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION: WHO's new Fact Sheet on Physical Activity
is now available online. The one-page fact sheet gives global statistics
on risk factors and disease that can be reduced through physical
activity, lists strategies for action, and WHO contacts. Other physical
activity information is also available on the WHO website (http://www.who.int/hpr/gs.fs.pa.shtml).
PA AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN OLDER ADULTS: See the October 2001 issue
of the Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and
Medical Sciences, Volume 56A (Special Issue II) for reviews about
nutrition, physical activity and quality of life in older adults.
SISTERS TOGETHER (update): "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat
Better" is a national media-based program designed to encourage
Black women 18 and over to maintain a healthy weight by becoming
more physically active and eating healthier foods. The program,
sponsored by the Weight-control Information Network (WIN), a national
information service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive
and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health
(NIH), builds on a successful community awareness program held in
Boston from 1995 to 1998. National and local newspapers, magazines,
and radio stations will serve as channels to further raise awareness
among Black women about the health benefits of regular physical
activity and healthy eating. WIN has created three new colorful,
age appropriate, and culturally relevant brochures that offer Black
women, their families, and their friends practical, science-based
tips to help them move more and eat better to improve their quality
of life. The brochures are "Celebrate the Beauty of Youth,"
"Energize Yourself & Your Family," and "Fit and
Fabulous as You Mature." For more information about WIN and
the Sisters Together Media program, consumers and health professionals
can call WIN's toll-free number (877) 946-4627 or the local DC number
(202) 828-1025. Additional information is available at the campaign
and on the WIN home page (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/win.htm).
WEIGHT AND HEALTH WEBSITE: The Center for Weight and Health at
the University of California, Berkeley has launched a new website
with resources, tools, literature, links, and directories related
to weight, physical activity, and nutrition. The literature section
contains a comprehensive list of citations of peer-reviewed articles
and reports, including sections on physical activity and surveillance.
The new site can be accessed at http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/cwh/.
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES
ACTIVE KIDS, HEALTHY KIDS (Nova Scotia): The Sports and Recreation
Commission (SRC) of Nova Scotia, Canada has several resources available
on their website as part of the Active Kids, Healthy Kids initiative.
The site includes background information, strategies, supporting
research, and ongoing efforts. Go to http://preview.tinyurl.com/yvehdv.
ACTIVE LIVING AT WORK (Canada): The new Business Case for Active
Living at Work website summarizes research relating workplace active
living with improved productivity, morale, and job satisfaction
and reduced employee absenteeism and turnover. The site also includes
"how to" sections, tips, and case studies of active workplaces
and online articles on the economics of workplace physical activity.
The site (located at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/pau-uap/fitness/work/index.html is part of part of the national strategy to decrease physical inactivity
among Canadians by 10 per cent by 2003.
PUSH PLAY DAY (New Zealand): On Nov. 9, 2001, New Zealand held
its annual Push Play Day, which sets the pace for yearlong activities
and advocates for New Zealanders to get off the sofa and get active.
Push Play involves communities, schools, businesses, and the population
at large in various forms of physical activity and is sponsored
by the Hillary Commission for Sport, Fitness and Leisure. The Hillary
Commission also offers numerous physical activity publications online.
For more information go to http://www.sparc.org.nz/research/index.php.
10,000 STEPS ROCKHAMPTON (Australia): An innovative community-based
project to increase physical activity in the adult population, 10,000
Steps Rockhampton is funded by Queensland Health as a two-year,
community based physical activity demonstration project. The project
will utilize five strategies to promote physical activity including
media, health professionals, social support, policy and environmental
interventions, and a community fund to support small local projects.
The study will also involve the use of pedometers to raise awareness
and to motivate participants to achieve "Ten Thousand Steps
a Day." For more information, contact Elizabeth Eakin at the
Schools of Public Health and Human Movement Studies at Queensland
University of Technology, email@example.com.
SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENTS FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY - SEPA (Australia):
In 1996 the National Heart Foundation (NHF) of Australia's South
Australian Division initiated SEPA to increase participation in
'incidental' physical activity, for example walking to the corner
shop for a paper or carton of milk. See the original research report
titled "Exercise in Daily Life: Supportive Environments"
on the NHF web site (http://www.heartfoundation.com.au).
SEPA has since created "Supportive Environments for Physical
Activity: Guidelines for Local Government" to give pictorial
and textual examples of how an environment that supports active
living would look and function. The document is designed to be 'generic'
and presents objectives under four categories: Street Networks,
Neighbourhood Destinations, Pedestrians & Cyclists, and Development
Layout. For each of the objectives there are a number of actions
ranging from macro to micro level interventions. This document is
sold for a nominal fee ($7.00 Aus) to cover printing. Project team
members are currently undertaking a research project as part of
the development of a walking strategy for South Australia and welcome
any feedback from researchers in the field, especially in relation
to economic costs benefit analysis of pedestrianized environments,
organizational constraints or facilitators to walking, and case
studies of successful walking environments and how they have been
achieved. Contact Robyn Cox at Robyn.Cox@heartfoundation.com.au.
PA AND COMMUNITY DESIGN: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)
recently published "Healthy Places, Healthy People: Promoting
Public Health & Physical Activity Through Community Design."
This document is based on discussions at a meeting in November 2000,
during which 26 experts exchanged information, identified barriers,
and formulated possible strategies for reintegrating physical activity
into community design. The document is available on the web at http://www.rwjf.org/programareas/resources/product.jsp?id=15735&pid=1138&gsa=1.
BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH: The CDC's National Center
for Environmental Health has released a new report linking land
use and public health. "Creating a Healthy Environment: The
Impact of the Built Environment on Public Health" compiles
research from multiple disciplines and explores the relationship
between the built environment and physical activity; the impact
of urban design on the number of pedestrian injuries and deaths,
particularly among children; and the choices communities make about
the built environment that impact mobility and quality of life for
elderly and disabled residents. The report can be found at the Sprawl
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
DEVELOPING LIFESTYLE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS: A 2.5-day Cooper
Institute workshop on developing, implementing and evaluating lifestyle
physical activity programs will be held on the following dates in
2002: Jan. 21-23, July 22-24, and Oct. 14-16. The cost is $465.00
per person. Topics will include assessing a client's physical activity
readiness, leading effective group sessions, designing user-friendly
educational materials, and evaluating programs. Register on-line
or call 800-635-7050 ext. 3530. For further information contact
Michelle Edwards or Ruth Ann Carpenter at (800) 635-7050, ext. 3231
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AGING AND MOBILITY: "Senior Mobility
in the 21st Century-What Can We Do to Prepare?" will be held
March 25-27, 2002, in Scottsdale, Arizona. This conference is designed
to help local governments and community-based organizations respond
to the transportation challenges related to an aging population.
The conference is sponsored by the Maricopa Association of Governments
in collaboration with over 30 metropolitan planning organizations,
national nonprofits, and regional and local governments and agencies.
Workshops and sessions will be organized around four tracks, including
transportation planning/design and project development, senior friendly
development planning, alternative transportation, and older driver
issues and programs. For registration and information, go to http://www.mag.maricopa.gov/detail.cms?item=187
USC PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER UPDATE
SUMTER UPDATE: Some exciting things have been happening in our
partner community of Sumter, SC. In the last year the city of Sumter
has hired one full-time and three part-time park rangers for the
city parks. They are also training additional police officers for
mounted park patrol. The city has set aside $1 million from sales
taxes for city parks and the Sumter Urban Area Transit system has
earmarked funds for new sidewalks and streetscapes. Three members
of Sumter County Active Lifestyles (SCAL) have been appointed to
serve on the "Play" subcommittee of the city's visioning
project to assess and plan for overall community improvement and
quality of life. SCAL will be submitting recommendations to the
metropolitan planning organization to help prioritize sidewalk and
bike lane construction. The city has agreed to put up signs marking
the routes that appear on SCAL's walking map. The city also approved
an Adopt A Park project, and SCAL is busy recruiting community and
Writers: Delores Pluto, Lillian Smith, Ralph Welsh, Regina
This and past issues of the "University of South Carolina
Prevention Research Center Notes" are available at our website.
If you have an item you'd like to submit, please send it to Delores
Pluto at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Research Center at USCPRC@gwm.sc.edu.
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For continuing discussions about physical activity, visit our website,
for instructions on joining the Physical Activity and Public Health
On-Line Network listserv.
The USC Prevention Research Center is a member of the CDC Prevention
Research Center's National Network, consisting of 26 Centers in
the U.S. *****************************************************************************
Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Funded by the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention
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