UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health Through Physical Activity"
Greetings from the USC Prevention Research Center faculty and staff.
While I have no intention to irritate our friends in the north (who
are still in the throes of winter), South Carolina is in full bloom
with the onset of spring. The weather is perfect for cool morning
exercise and afternoon sunning. We are pleased to see the increased
interest in policy and environmental supports for physical activity
in the US and abroad. In this month's newsletter, you will note
an article showing an association between children living in neighborhoods
friendly to walking and increased torso and limb strength. This
is followed by a comprehensive review of pedometer studies that
have been used to track walking. There is a lot to be said about
walking, often cited as the #1 activity for exercise and conditioning
among adults. So with that, keep walking as you enjoy the change
Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Delores Pluto, Newsletter Editor (email@example.com)
EDITOR'S NOTE: Because we now have web addresses for almost every
article in the newsletter, we are dropping the special section on
websites. Instead, we have added a section called "Promoting
Active Communities." This section will be devoted to community
efforts to remove barriers and increase supports for physical activity.
Look at this month's section for information from Europe, Australia,
and the US.
IN THIS ISSUE: March 2001
NEWS YOU CAN USE: Affordable Bike Lanes, National Public
Health Week, National Employee Health and Fitness Day
RESEARCH NOTES: US Activity Levels Unchanged, Children's
Understanding of PA, Cultural Activity Participation Study, Behavioral
Counseling and Stages of Change, Access to Pedestrian Roads Associated
with Measures of Physical Functioning, Using Pedometers to Track
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: PACE Update, PACE
Canada, American Fitness Alliance, Teen Fitness Program, Tips for
Working with the Media
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES: Europe on the Move!, Michigan's
Active Community Awards, TravelSmart
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: PA and Public Health,
Partnerships in Physical Activity - Empowering Your Population,
SOPHE Mid-Year Conference, 5th Annual SPARK Summer Institutes, First
National Congress of Pedestrian Advocates, TrailLink 2001
NEWS YOU CAN USE
AFFORDABLE BIKE LANES: According to U.S. Rep. James Oberstar,
(D-MN), at the September 2000 Interbike bicycle industry trade show
in Las Vegas, constructing one mile of urban freeway costs an average
of $46 million a mile. Compare this with average construction costs
for bicycling improvement of $70,000 a mile; 12-foot shared paths
of $128,000 a mile; 5-foot bicycle lanes of $189,000 a mile; and
5-foot paved shoulders on rural roads of $102,000 a mile. His conclusion
– "Who says we can't afford bicycle lanes?"
NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK will be April 2-8. The 2001
theme is "Healthy People in Healthy Communities." This is an opportunity
to recognize the contributions of public health to the nation's
well being and to help focus public attention on major health issues
in our communities. According to the American Public Health Association,
National Public Health Week is now celebrated in communities in
46 states and by 60 percent of local health departments.
NATIONAL EMPLOYEE HEALTH AND FITNESS (NEHF) DAY will be
May 16th. Sponsored exclusively by the National Association for
Health & Fitness (NAHF), NEHF is an excellent activity for companies
of all sizes, whether just starting a worksite wellness program
or enhancing an existing program. Launched nationally in 1989, NEHF
encourages employees to become more active and healthy through fun,
non-competitive activities. To get started, request the NEHF Event
Planning Kit. The kit includes year-round activity suggestions so
your company can celebrate NEHF 365 days a year. NAHF also has a
resource and product guide that contains incentives and programs
to fit every health promotion budget. Go to
www.physicalfitness.org or call (317) 237-5630.
US ACTIVITY LEVELS UNCHANGED: In spite of efforts to get
Americans to be more active, physical activity levels of US adults
changed little between 1990 and 1998. This is the conclusion of
an analysis of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
System (BRFSS) published in the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report (MMWR), "Physical Activity Trends --- United States, 1990
- 1998," Volume 50, No. 9, March 9, 2001. You can find the MMWR
on the web at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5009.pdf
(PDF format) or
format). To subscribe to an electronic edition of the MMWR, go to
CHILDREN'S UNDERSTANDING OF PA: Fourth-graders who watched
a five-minute video describing and showing "physical activity" did
better at correctly identifying PA behaviors than children in a
group who listened to a generic description of PA. Both groups did
better than children in a control group. The study demonstrated
that without intervention, children have a limited understanding
of the concept of physical activity, which has implications for
assessment of physical activity in children by self-report. See
Trost, Morgan, Saunders, Felton, Ward, and Pate, "Children's Understanding
of the Concept of Physical Activity," Pediatric Exercise Science,
12:293-299, August 2000.
CULTURAL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION STUDY: In-depth exploratory
interviews about physical activity were conducted with small groups
of African American, Pueblo, and Navajo women. Walking was an activity
discussed by many of the women. The women described a variety of
enablers for walking, including the adaptability and availability
of walking, social or solitary dimensions, and the perception that
walking was "not really exercise." Some of the Native American women
noted there were cultural traditions related to walking and being
connected to the land. Constraints to walking were also described,
including weather and seasons, safety, not having walking partners,
and being physically or emotionally tired. These constraints are
similar to those identified in other studies, so do not appear to
be connected to the cultural background of the women. See Henderson
and Ainsworth, "Enablers and Constraints to Walking for Older African
American and American Indian Women: The Cultural Activity Participation
Study." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(4):313-321,
BEHAVIORAL COUNSELING AND STAGE OF CHANGE: Twenty primary
health care centers used either behavioral counseling or common
health promotion methods to encourage healthy lifestyles among their
patients. The behavioral counseling sessions were based on the stage
of change model and involved strategies incorporating the use of
attitude change, goal setting, and behavioral advice to stimulate
behavioral modification. Control group centers employing health
promotion methods included education about the benefits of lifestyle
change, encouragement for change, and suggestions on what changes
could be made. The groups receiving behavioral counseling, including
those in the earlier stages of change, showed a greater increase
in the proportion of patients who moved into the action/maintenance
stage at 4 months and 12 months of follow-up. The authors conclude
that brief stage-matched behavioral counseling may be a valuable
strategy for encouraging healthy lifestyles among patients at risk
for cardiovascular disease. See Steptoe, Kerry, Rink, and Hilton,
"The Impact of Behavioral Counseling on Stage of Change in
Fat Intake, Physical Activity, and Cigarette Smoking in Adults at
Increased Risk of Coronary Heart Disease," American Journal
of Public Health, 91:265-269, February 2001.
ACCESS TO PEDESTRIAN ROADS ASSOCIATED WITH MEASURES OF PHYSICAL
FUNCTIONING: Pedestrian roads are small roads or trails built
exclusively for pedestrians and bicyclists along the main roads.
Physical performance (lower back strength, lower back flexibility,
and hip flexibility) was measured in a cross-sectional study of
two groups of adolescents. Adolescents living in the area without
access to pedestrian roads (where school buses were used more) had
less lower back and hip flexibility that those adolescents living
in the area with pedestrian roads. Although active commuting (walking
or bicycling) to school was not associated with physical performance,
active commuting to leisure time activities was positively associated
with physical performance measures. Distance traveled by school
bus and time spent on television or a computer were negatively associated
with physical performance. These results provide preliminary indications
that anatomical functioning is associated with access to pedestrian
roads and individual lifestyle factors. See Sjolie, "Access
to Pedestrian Roads, Daily Activities, and Physical Performance
of Adolescents," Spine, 25(15):1965-1972, August 2000.
USING PEDOMETERS TO TRACK WALKING: Pedometers are inexpensive
($10-50) objective monitoring devices used to measure walking throughout
the day. Research is accumulating that testifies to their accuracy,
reliability, and comparability to more expensive objective monitors
known as accelerometers. This review of published pedometer studies
suggests that we can expect 12,000-16,000 steps/day for 8-10 year
old children (lower for girls than boys); 7,000-13,000 steps/day
for relatively healthy, younger adults (lower for women than men);
6,000-8,500 steps/day for healthy older adults; and 3,500-5,500
steps/day for individuals living with disabilities and chronic illnesses.
The authors present useful advice for using pedometers for multiple
purposes, including surveillance, screening, program evaluation,
and self-monitoring and feedback in behavioral interventions. Preliminary
guidelines for consistent assessment protocols are also suggested.
See Tudor-Locke & Myers, "Methodological considerations
for researchers and practitioners using pedometers to measure physical
(ambulatory) activity," Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport, 72(1), 1-12, March 2001.
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES
PACE UPDATE: PACE (Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling
for Exercise and Nutrition) is a nutrition and physical activity
program for delivery by physicians and other health care providers.
Developed by researchers at San Diego State University with funding
from CDC and the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine,
the PACE program includes assessment tools and counseling protocols.
PACE is based on the Transtheoretical or "Stages of Change" model
that suggests individuals change their habits in stages. PACE training
includes a 3-4 hour workshop for providers and office staff plus
follow-up consultation. Training is tailored to suit the provider's
setting and needs. For information check out the website at http://www.paceproject.org,
call 619-594-5949 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
PACE CANADA: PACE Canada was developed by the Canadian Fitness
and Lifestyle Research Institute in collaboration with the Active
Living Coalition for Older Adults, the U.S. Project PACE team, and
with the financial support of Health Canada. PACE Canada has been
adapted specifically for the Canadian cultural milieu and health
care context, and is available in both English and French. Unlike
the US version, it has been extended to be inclusive of older adults,
who are at significantly higher risk of sedentary living and poor
eating habits. More information about PACE Canada can be obtained
by visiting the PACE Canada Web site http://www.pace-canada.org
or by contacting Dr. Storm Russell, Senior Research Associate, Canadian Fitness
and Lifestyle Research Institute, (613) 233-5528, ext. 26, email@example.com
or Kathleen Shearer, PACE Canada Coordinator, (613) 233-5528, ext.
AMERICAN FITNESS ALLIANCE: American Fitness Alliance (AFA)
Youth Fitness Resource Center is a partnership of the American Alliance
for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD),
the Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research (CIAR), and Human Kinetics.
The AFA's mission is to improve young people's fitness and health
by promoting physical activity and other healthy behaviors. The
AFA website contains educational, assessment, and training resources
you can use to enhance youth fitness programs whether you're a physical
educator, fitness professional, or youth program administrator.
Find the AFA on the web at http://www.americanfitness.net
or call 1-800-747-4457. They will also have an exhibit at the AAHPERD
National Conventions (March 27 - 31 in Cincinnati, OH and April
16 - 20 in San Diego, CA).
TEEN FITNESS PROGRAM: "First Choice" is a curriculum that
teaches health and fitness as life skills. The curriculum aims to
prevent substance abuse, delinquency, violence, school dropouts,
and mental health problems. The program combines formal instruction
with time for physical activity, and was designed to be delivered
through a variety of settings like recreation departments, schools,
and substance abuse agencies. Forty hours of training on "First
Choice" is provided by the program's developer, Dr. Thomas
Collingwood. Program data show dramatic changes in the behaviors
of the 10,000 teens who have gone through the program. For more
information, contact Dr. Collingwood, Fitness Interventions Technologies,
TIPS FOR WORKING WITH THE MEDIA: The Center for the Advancement
of Health has created a guide called "Communicating Health Behavior
Science in the Media: Tips for Researchers." The seven topics addressed
include, "Getting the Media's Attention," "Preparing for an Interview,"
and "Tips for Television." The guide is useful for any public health
professional or researcher, and is available at www.cfah.org
-- scroll down and click on "View/Order Publications," then scroll
down and click on the title of the guide. The document opens in
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES
EUROPE ON THE MOVE! is the information network of the European
program for the Promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity
(HEPA). Their website is an interesting collection of information
about HEPA projects throughout Europe. You can also access two HEPA
documents that may be of use wherever you are. You can find "Guidelines
for Establishing a HEPA Promotion Programme" and "Promotion
of Transport Walking and Cycling in Europe: Strategy Directions"
by going to the Europe on the Move! website at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/health/index_en.htm and look at the
News section. While you're there, check out the sections on members,
projects, conferences, and links.
MICHIGAN'S ACTIVE COMMUNITY AWARDS: The Governor's Council
on Physical Fitness, Health and Sports in Michigan has initiated
an Active Community Award. The award recognizes communities that
have made a commitment to become healthier places to live by removing
barriers to physical activity. Organizers believe the award will
help increase awareness of the types of public policies and programs
that remove barriers to healthful physical activity and recognize
Michigan communities that are doing a good job in this area. Communities
use a self-assessment tool that awards points to for the things
they've done to remove barriers and shows them ways to improve.
The program continues this year after a successful pilot in 2000
(thanks to Karen Petersmarck in the Department of Community Health).
For more information go to www.michiganfitness.org
or send e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
TRAVELSMART: TravelSmart is a successful Western Australian
community-based program that encourages people to use alternatives
to travelling in their private car. TravelSmart uses marketing approaches
to reach people in their homes and workplaces and empowerment approaches
to work with groups to implement their own TravelSmart programs.
A large-scale intervention in the first half of 2000, using a dialogue
marketing technique, achieved a 35% increase in walking trips and
a 61% increase in cycling trips as an average across the whole population
of an urban community of 35,000 people. For more information, including
at TravelSmart 2010: A 10 Year Plan, go to www.travelsmart.transport.wa.gov.au
or e-mail Bruce James at email@example.com.
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
PA AND PUBLIC HEALTH: The Physical Activity and Public Health
Courses (PAPH) are an 8-day Postgraduate Course on Research Directions
and Strategies and a 6-day Practitioner's Course on Community Interventions.
Sponsored by the CDC and the USC Prevention Research Center, the
courses are currently in the 7th year of successful training for
professionals in the field. Approximately twenty-five fellows are
accepted for each course. This year, the courses are being held
at the Sea Pines Conference Resort, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina,
on September 18-26, 2001. Deadline for applications is May 15, 2001.
For more information, contact Janna Shiley at (803) 576-6050 or
firstname.lastname@example.org, or check
out the course website at http://prevention.sph.sc.edu/seapines/index.htm.
PARTNERSHIPS IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY - EMPOWERING YOUR POPULATION:
This conference will be the forum from which the National Association
for Health and Fitness (NAHF) and the Network of State and Governor's
Councils launch their annual health and fitness programs, projects,
and activities. Their objectives are to develop community partnerships,
provide learning tools for self-improvement, increase personal skill
development, enhance personal knowledge base, and identify strategies
that resonate with special populations. This 24th Annual Conference
will be May 2-5, in Tempe, Arizona. Go to http://www.physicalfitness.org
on the web, or call (317) 237-5630.
SOPHE MID-YEAR CONFERENCE: SOPHE, the Society for Public
Health Education, will be holding its mid-year scientific conference
May 3-5, 2001 in Seattle, WA. The theme is "Celebrating Diversity
in a Climate for Wellness." The conference will provide an opportunity
to learn about the latest research and practice related to ethnic,
social and health diversity. For more information go to
http://www.sophe.org or call (202) 408-9804.
5th ANNUAL SPARK SUMMER INSTITUTES: SPARK (Sports, Play,
and Active Recreation for Kids) was developed with funding from
the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes
of Health. This research project evolved into SPARK Physical Education,
a non-profit organization of San Diego State University Foundation,
dedicated to improving the quantity and quality of physical education
for children and teachers everywhere. This year's summer institutes
will be at San Diego State University, July 9-13 and West Virginia
University, August 6-10. To request an information flyer for either
workshop, phone (800) SPARK PE or e-mail: email@example.com. Leave
your name, address, daytime telephone number, and e-mail address.
Pre-registration deadline is June 29, 2001 for San Diego and July
3, 2001 for West Virginia. On the web at http://www.sparkpe.org/summer.jsp.
FIRST NATIONAL CONGRESS OF PEDESTRIAN ADVOCATES: American
Walks, the national coalition of pedestrian advocates, has organized
the First National Congress of Pedestrian Advocates, August 16-18,
in Oakland, CA. Pedestrian advocates from around the country are
encouraged to attend. The congress will provide opportunities for
training in fundraising, organizing for advocacy, and community
design for pedestrian comfort and safety. The purpose of the Congress
is to expand the growth of grassroots pedestrian advocacy to strengthen
the health of all Americans and improve the livability of their
communities. For more information, send your name, e-mail address,
telephone, and postal address to
TRAILLINK 2001: The 3rd International Trails and Greenways
Conference will meet in St. Louis, September 26 - 29, 2001. Trails
and greenways are gaining attention as tools for addressing a wide
array of issues around the world. Major conference themes include
Public Health and Trails, Smart Growth, Safe Routes to School, Urban
Regional Trail System, and Reauthorization on the Transportation
Equity Act for the 21st Century.
Join thousands of trail supporters who will share experiences and
new information to move the growing trails and greenways community
into the new century. Visit
www.railtrails.org for conference details including how to submit
presentation proposals. E-mail
firstname.lastname@example.org or phone 202-974-5152 to get on the mailing
Writers: Delores Pluto, Regina Fields, Ralph Welsh, Catrine
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Prevention Research Center Notes" are available at our website.
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Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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