UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health Through Physical Activity"
The USC Prevention Research Center believes that the environment
influences physical activity. The idea of creating more friendly
environments to increase physical activity makes intuitive sense.
Practitioners are already implementing programs to make environmental
changes, even as researchers begin to test the impact of such changes.
For example, our community partners in Sumter, SC recently dedicated
a new section of the Cypress Trail.
Support for walkable communities is getting more press all the
time, not only as a means of encouraging physical activity, but
also as a safety issue. In the last few months, a number of articles
have come to our attention. "New Agents of Change" in the June 18
issue of Time recognized Dan Burden, founder of Walkable
Communities, Inc. as one of six successful, modern activists. The
May issue of Governing included an article about pedestrian
safety, entitled "Taking Back the Streets," and Woman's Day,
May 15, wrote about "Pedestrians in Peril." Cooking Light
included "How to Grow a Sidewalk" in the May issue; this article
contained advice for local walking advocates and a great success
story. The June issue of Planning included an excellent summary
of the issue in their article, "Fat City." What success stories
can you share?
Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Delores Pluto, Newsletter Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org)
IN THIS ISSUE: June/July, 2001
NEWS YOU CAN USE: Texas Bicycle Safety Legislation, Skipping
into Health, Project Fit America, Ozone Season
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON: 2002 Budget
RESEARCH NOTES: Researching Leisure and PA with Women of
Color, Obesity Compared to Poverty and Smoking, Preventing Type
2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Interventions, Internet-Based Behavioral
Weight Loss Programs, Physical Activity Dose-Response
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: Promoting Walking,
Sedentary Death Syndrome, Lowering High Blood Pressure
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES: Toronto Bike Share Program,
Physically Active Children and Youth in Nova Scotia
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: School Health, APHA
in Atlanta, Chronic Disease Conference, CVH 2002
USC PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER UPDATE: Pedometer Interest
NEWS YOU CAN USE
TEXAS BICYCLE SAFETY LEGISLATION: In June, Texas became
the third state (after California and Washington) to enact legislation
creating a Safe Routes to School program. The programs involve community,
local, and state government in reviewing, planning, and implementing
changes to create safe ways for children to walk or cycle safely
to school. See
http://www.biketexas.org for more information on the Matthew
SKIPPING INTO HEALTH: A new group of health enthusiasts
promotes skipping for its positive impact on physical as well as
mental wellbeing. Stating that skipping makes you feel like a kid
again while providing an excellent workout, the group offers a website
where skippers can network, share stories, and find out about skipping
events across the country. To find out more about this fun activity,
go to www.iskip.com.
PROJECT FIT AMERICA (PFA) is a national non-profit dedicated
to getting kids fit. PFA donates fully funded cardiovascular health
and lifetime fitness education programs to schools, grades K-12.
Seventy-five cents of each dollar received is donated to schools
for permanent fitness equipment, supporting PA curriculum, teacher
training and staff development, and community outreach events. To
find more about the PFA, visit their website at
OZONE SEASON runs from May through September each year,
a time when ground-level ozone has the most probability of causing
a number of respiratory problems, especially for children and adults
who are active outdoors and people with asthma or other respiratory
diseases. To help people avoid unhealthy exposure to ozone, the
Environmental Protection Agency sponsors AIRNOW, an Internet site
that gives daily information about ozone, it's effect, and daily
air quality data throughout the US. For more information or the
daily forecast, go to
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON
2002 BUDGET: President Bush's 2002 budget includes cuts
to the budgets of several chronic disease prevention and health
promotion programs. Among many recommended cuts, CDC's budget for
heart disease and stroke would be reduced by $7.2 million, nutrition
and physical activity would be reduced by $2 million, and coordinated
school health and the WISEWOMAN project would not be funded. Congressional
committees can make changes in the budget after the President has
RESEARCHING LEISURE AND PA WITH WOMEN OF COLOR: Based on
a retrospective review of the qualitative research process used
in the Cross Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS), this
article discusses issues confronting researchers studying leisure
and physical activity behavior in marginalized groups of different
racial, ethnic and cultural identities. Addressed within the discussion
are topics such as: how we conceptualize and measure "race,"
language and definitions used with physical activityand leisure,
the lack of relevant research models, the role of researcher identity
and bias, the role of personal and cultural values, and the influence
of multiple identities. The authors make recommendations to encourage
methodological imagination and reduce researcher bias. See Henderson
and Ainsworth. "Researching Leisure and Physical Activity with
Women of Color: Issues and Emerging Questions." Leisure
Sciences, 23:21-34, 2001.
OBESITY COMPARED TO POVERTY AND SMOKING: Nationally representative
data was used to compare the associations of obesity, poverty, smoking,
and problem drinking with the occurrence of chronic medical conditions
and health-related quality of life. Results indicate that obesity
is as strongly associated with the occurrence of chronic medical
conditions and physical health-related quality of life as poverty,
lifetime smoking history, or recent heavy drinking (controlling
for age, race, and sex). The authors recommend that weight control
receive a higher national priority. See Sturm and Wells, "Does
Obesity Contribute as Much to Morbidity as Poverty or Smoking?"
Public Health, 115:229-235, 2001.
PREVENTING TYPE 2 DIABETES WITH LIFESTYLE INTERVENTIONS:
Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned
to either an intervention group receiving individual lifestyle counseling
or a control group receiving general counseling. The lifestyle counseling
focused on reducing weight and fat intake while increasing dietary
fiber and physical activity. During the course of the study (approximately
4 years) annual glucose tolerance tests were performed along with
secondary tests for diabetes. Results of the intervention included
significantly greater weight loss, lower risk for diabetes, and
a lower cumulative incidence of diabetes which was directly associated
with the changes in lifestyle. This evidence, along with the 58%
decrease in overall incidence of diabetes resulting from the intervention,
led the authors to conclude that type 2 diabetes can be prevented
in high risk patients through lifestyle based counseling. See Tuomilehto,
Lindstrom, Eriksson, Valle, et al. "Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes
Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle Among Subjects with Impaired GlucoseTolerance."
The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18):1343-1350, 2001.
INTERNET-BASED BEHAVIORAL WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAMS: The authors
of this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-based
technology for delivering a behavioral weight loss program. Participants
were randomly assigned to a 6-month weight loss program involving
either Internet education or Internet behavioral therapy. Members
of both groups participated in face-to-face group weight loss sessions
and were directed to a website containing links to weight loss resources.
People assigned to the Internet behavioral intervention group logged
weekly body weights, caloric consumption, fat consumption, and caloric
energy expenditure in Web-based diaries; received weekly, personalized
e-mail feedback on their progress; and could send e-mail to ask
specific questions. An electronic bulletin board was used to facilitate
social support among the members of this group. Significantly greater
weight loss and waist circumference reductions (at 3 and 6 months)
and a greater achievement of weight loss goals (at 6 months) was
found in the Internet behavioral intervention group. The authors
suggest that the use of Internet technology and e-mail can be an
effective method for delivering structured behavioral weight loss
programs to individuals with access to this technology. See Tate,
Wing, & Winett. "Using Internet Technology to Deliver a
Behavioral Weight Loss Program."Journal of the American
Medical Association, 285(9):1172-1177, 2001.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOSE-RESPONSE: A special issue of Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise (June 2001) includes papers
presented at an evidence-based symposium in October 2000. This symposium
examined dose-response issues related to the role of physical activity
in health promotion and disease prevention. The issue includes a
consensus statement and recommendations for future research, along
with 24 papers and 6 summaries.
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES
PROMOTING WALKING: "Australia: Walking the 21st Century:
An International Walking Conference" was held in Perth, Western
Australia in February. The conference offered attendees the opportunity
to learn from experts in health, transportation, and planning who
are dedicated to the development of walking. The full text of papers
presented at the conference can be found at http://www.publishing.uwa.edu.au/research/2001/public-health.asp.
LAND USE, TRANSPORTATION, AND PUBLIC HEALTH: CDC's Active
Community Environments (ACEs) work group website contains copies
of two working papers designed to better understand how the natural,
built, and social environment influences physical activity. Look
for "How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health"
and "How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health:
An Annotated bibliography" at
SEDENTARY DEATH SYNDROME (SeDS). Researchers against Inactivity–related
Diseases (RID) are devoted to the elimination of all 35 inactivity-related
conditions, which they have named Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDS).
RID estimates that 60% of Americans at risk for SeDS, which could
lead to premature disability or death. Led by Frank Booth, PhD,
a professor at the University of Missouri-Columbia Department of
Physiology, RID advocates for a comprehensive approach to SeDS that
includes increasing funding for CDC's physical activity programs,
increasing the annual healthcare budget spent on prevention, and
including SeDS within NIH. RID is also launching a public education
campaign with a mascot, SeDS the Fat Cat, aimed at children and
adolescents. Go to http://www.endseds.org for additional advocacy,
media, and contact information with links.
LOWERING HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: The National High Blood Pressure
Education Program, a program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute (NHLBI), has a new homepage titled "Your Guide to
Lowering High Blood Pressure" at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp.
This website provides up-to-date, practical information on preventing
and treating high blood pressure. Special features of this site
include tips and quizzes about high blood pressure and heart health,
information about lifestyle and medications organized by keywords.
The physical activity section includes tips on getting started and
maintaining moderate physical activity. The site also includes tips
on healthy eating and information on Dietary Approaches to Stop
PROMOTING ACTIVE COMMUNITIES
TORONTO BIKE SHARE PROGRAM: In May, Toronto launched a
bike sharing program to enable commuters to leave their cars at
home and rediscover the benefits of cycling. Inspired by initiatives
in Amsterdam, Copenhagen and Portland, Oregon, BikeShare aims to
reduce vehicle emissions, increase physical activity, and offer
youth training and employment. For a small annual fee riders can
pick out one of 150 used yellow bicycles equipped with a lock, a
basket, a bell, and reflectors. After cycling around the city, members
return the bike at any BikeShare hub. For more information, visit
PHYSICALLY ACTIVE CHILDREN AND YOUTH (PACY) is an interdepartmental
initiative whose goal is to reduce the number of inactive children
and youth in Nova Scotia, Canada by 10% by the year 2003. The group's
mandate will be to develop a provincial strategy with funding recommendations
to reach this goal. To develop these recommendations, the working
group will provide maximum opportunity for public input, in particular
from children and youth. The provincial strategy will be completed
in December, 2001. Initiatives will be funded in areas that address
the key predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors. Specific
criteria, eligibility and deadlines will be announced in the near
future. For more information, see the report, "Towards Physically
Active Children and Youth in Nova Scotia," at: http://www.gov.ns.ca/hpp/physicalactivity/publications/MinPASTRATEGY.pdf
STPP-AARP SEEK MODEL POLICIES & PROGRAMS: The Surface
Transportation Policy Project (STPP) is developing a report for
the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) examining state
laws, policies and programs that promote alternative transportation
(including walking and cycling). The report will include: (1) a
comprehensive survey of state policies, legislation and spending
practices; (2) in-depth case studies of several "best practice"
programs/policies that promote mobility for older Americans; and,
(3) a list of criteria that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness
and merit of policies and programs. STPP is requesting examples
of what states have done to promote (or restrict) alternative transportation--legislation
and policies that affect resource allocation and/or governmental
decision-making, or successful statewide programs to enhance opportunities
for alternative modes. Send your input to Jodi Michaels (email@example.com)
or Alyssa Campbell (firstname.lastname@example.org).
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
SCHOOL HEALTH: The 8th Annual ASHA Summer Institute, "Vital
Connections: Coordinated School Health, Healthier Kids & Communities,
School Success," will be held on July 30-31, 2001, Nebraska Wesleyan
University (Olin Center) in Lincoln, Nebraska. The Institute is
aimed at all public health professionals and administrators working
with school health. The 75th Annual ASHA School Health Conference,
"Back to the Future: School Health in the 21st Century," will be
held November 7-11, 2001, in Albuquerque, NM. For more information
on both activities, go to the ASHA website: www.ashaweb.org/conferences.html.
APHA IN ATLANTA: "One World, Global Health," the 129th
APHA annual meeting and exposition, will be held October 21-25,
2001 in Atlanta, GA. Withattendance of more than 12,000 people in
the field of public health, the APHA annual meeting is like no other.
For more information visit http://www.apha.org/meetings/index.htm.
You can register on the web site, email email@example.com,
or phone (202) 777-2478.
CHRONIC DISEASE CONFERENCE: Mark your calendars for the
16th National Conference on Chronic Disease Prevention and Control,
"Cultivating Healthier Communities Through Research, Policy, and
Practice," to be held in Atlanta, GA, February 27 - March 1, 2002.
Abstracts are being accepted now through August 3, 2001. The conference
is sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
the Association of State and Territorial Chronic Disease Program
Directors, and the Prevention Research Centers Program. For more
CVH 2002: "Cardiovascular Health for All: Meeting the Challenge
of Healthy People 2010" is a national conference to be held April
11-13, 2002 in Washington, D.C. The conference will focus on
disease prevention and treatment to address the cardiovascular challenges
set forth in Healthy People 2010 as well as the overarching goals
of increasing the quality and years of healthy life and eliminating
health disparities. Deadline for submitting abstracts is September
14, 2001. For information on Healthy People 2010, visit http://www.health.gov/healthypeople
USC PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER UPDATE
PEDOMETER INTEREST GROUP: Catrine Tudor-Locke, PhD, and
the USC PRC have launched a new listserv dedicated to furthering
the understanding of the use of pedometers for measurement and motivation
of physical activity. This listserv provides an electronic forum
exchanging new ideas, questions, and concerns among the members.
To subscribe, please send an e-mail message to LISTSERV@VM.SC.EDU
and include the following command in the text of the message: SUBSCRIBE
PEDGROUP yourfirstname yourlastname. Do not include any other text
in the message, not even an electronic signature. Once you have
subscribed to the listserv, you will be e-mailed a welcome message,
as well as basic listserv commands, guidelines for posting messages,
and listserv etiquette. As a FREE SIGN-ON GIFT, you'll receive an
updated bibliography of pedometer references.
Writers: Delores Pluto, Ralph Welsh, Lillian Smith
This and past issues of the "University of South Carolina
Prevention Research Center Notes" are available at our website.
If you have an item you'd like to submit, please send it to Delores
Pluto at firstname.lastname@example.org. To
subscribe or unsubscribe to this newsletter, e-mail the Prevention
Research Center at USCPRC@gwm.sc.edu.
When subscribing, please include your name, e-mail address, title,
and organizational affiliation. There is no subscription cost.
For continuing discussions about physical activity and public
health, join the "Physical Activity and Public Health On-Line
Network." Visit our website,
http://prevention.sph.sc.edu, for instructions on joining.
The USC Prevention Research Center is a member of the CDC Prevention
Research Center's National Network, consisting of 24 Centers in
the U.S. For more information about the PRC National Network, visit
their website at http://www.cdc.gov/prc/.
Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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