UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Greetings! In August, the hot, muggy days of summer hang on to remind
us that fall is just around the corner. The new school year begins,
and for some, it is a transition to a new schedule. We hope the transitions
are easy for you, and that you include physical activity in your new
PREVENTION RESEARCH CENTER NOTES
"Promoting Health Through Physical Activity"
Barb Ainsworth, Director
Dennis Shepard, Deputy Director
Regina Fields, Newsletter Editor (RMFields@sc.edu)
IN THIS ISSUE – July/August 2000
CORRECTION: “Sisters Together” Website Address
NEWS YOU CAN USE: Walking on the Beach
WHAT’S HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON: Recess
RESEARCH NOTES: Mortality Rates and Various Types of Physical
Activity, Determinants of Physical Activity Among High Risk Populations,
Measurement of Physical Activity, Pedestrian Safety Intervention
REPORTS, SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES: Walk Our Children
to School Day 2000, Hearts N’ Parks, Mean Streets 2000
UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS: Pro Bike/Pro Walk 2000,
Obesity, Cardiovascular Health, PA and Older Adults, PA and Cancer,
American Public Health Association, International Walking Conference
WEBSITES OF INTEREST: PA and Disability, Surveys
CORRECTION: In the May/June 2000 newsletter, there was a
typo in the website address for the “Sisters Together” program. The
NEWS YOU CAN USE
WALKING ON THE BEACH: For the ideal fitness-walking environment,
head for the ocean, suggests the July 2000 issue of Prevention Magazine.
Benefits of sand walking include a tougher workout that will provide
quicker results and shapely legs while also providing a great environment
of water, sand and waves. The authors state that a 150-pound person
will burn about 275 calories an hour walking in the sand. It is also
mentioned that various safety precautions should be taken with this
type of activity such as starting off slowly, walking in both directions
on the beach, protecting your feet with sun block and aqua socks,
stretching your hips and calves well afterwards, and being cautious
if you have lower back problems or weak ankles. Overall this low impact
activity can be a great boost to your workouts.
HAPPENING IN WASHINGTON
RECESS: Congress has recessed until Tuesday, Sept. 5, 2000.
This is an excellent time for advocates to invite members and their
staff to visit physical activity programs or research projects in
their districts. For help determining the congress member for a district,
MORTALITY RISK AND VARIOUS TYPES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: This
prospective study (~14.5 years of follow up) evaluated the relationship
between levels of physical activity during work, leisure time, cycling
to work, and sports participation and all-cause mortality among Danish
men and women. After controlling for the risk factors of age, education
level, BMI, smoking status, blood pressure, total cholesterol and
triglycerides, leisure time physical activity was associated with
all cause mortality in both men and women. Further analyses revealed
that after controlling for leisure time physical activity levels,
sports participants experienced only half the mortality of non-sports
participants among moderate and highly active individuals. Bicycling
to work (~3 hours a week) also decreased mortality by approximately
40% again after controlling for various risk factors and leisure time
physical activity. Work related physical activity levels were associated
with decreases in all-cause mortality in women but not in men after
controlling for various CVD risk factors. See Andersen, Schnohr, Schroll,
and Hein, “All-Cause Mortality Associated With Physical Activity During
Leisure Time, Work, Sports, and Cycling to Work” Archives of Internal
Medicine, June 12, 2000, 160:1621-1628.
DETERMINANTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG HIGH RISK POPULATONS:
The purpose of this study was to explore personal, program-based and
environmental barriers associated with physical inactivity among particularly
sedentary populations. Subjects in this study were women over the
age of 40 representing various ethnic groups, education levels and
living environments. Factors associated with inactivity included American
Indian ethnicity, older age, lower education, lack of energy, lack
of hills in one’s neighborhood, absence of enjoyable scenery, and
infrequent observation of others exercising in one’s neighborhood.
Within all ethnic subgroups, caregiving duties and lack of energy
ranked among the top four most commonly reported barriers for being
inactive. Exercising on one’s own with instruction was reported to
be more appealing than instructor-led groups by approximately 60%
of the individuals regardless of ethnicity or current activity level.
The authors conclude by stressing the importance of tailoring physical
activity interventions when working with these understudied, high-risk
populations. See King, Castro, Wilcox, Eyler, Sallis, and Brownson,
“Personal and Environmental Factors Associated With Physical Inactivity
Among Different Racial-Ethnic Groups of U.S. Middle-Aged and Older
Women.” Health Psychology, May 2000, 19(4):354-364.
MEASUREMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: The June 2000 supplement
to Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (Vol. 71, No. 2 Suppl.)
presents the proceedings from the 9th Measurement and Evaluation Symposium
of the Measurement and Evaluation Council of the American Association
for Active Lifestyles and Fitness. The symposium was held Oct. 14
– 16, 1999, as part of the Cooper Institute Conference Series. The
special issue was edited by Matthew Mahar of East Carolina University
and Barbara Ainsworth of the University of South Carolina. The supplement
includes articles on self-report; monitoring of physical activity
using motion sensors and heart rate; assessment of physical activity
in women, children, and older adults; ethnic and cultural issues;
public health surveillance; international perspectives; reliability
and validity; future possibilities in electronic monitoring; and determinants
of physical activity in the community. Most of the articles have a
response article as well.
PEDESTRIAN SAFETY INTERVENTION: Improving pedestrian safety
could help increase physical activity by reducing safety concerns
as a barrier to physical activity. Researchers at Virginia Tech tested
a four-week community-wide behavioral intervention to promote cross-walk
use by pedestrians and to promote yielding to pedestrians by motorists
on a college campus. The intervention included a promise-card signed
by individuals, who were eligible for raffle prizes, as well as extensive
paid and free advertising and publicity. Changes in traffic engineering
or police enforcement were not included as part of the intervention,
in order to determine if a behavioral intervention would be sufficient.
While the moderate increases in crosswalk use were not maintained,
increases in yielding by motorists increased dramatically from a 23%
baseline to 53% one year later. See Boyce & Geller, “A Community-Wide
Intervention to Improve Pedestrian Safety: Guidelines for Institutionalizing
Large-Scale Behavior Change.” Environment and Behavior, 32(4):502-520,
SURVEYS, GUIDELINES, RESOURCES
WALK OUR CHILDREN TO SCHOOL DAY 2000: This year’s Walk Our
Children to School Day 2000 is scheduled for October 4th, 2000 and
promises to be bigger than last year’s event which involved over 300,000
children, parents, mayors, legislators, health and safety advocates,
and community leaders from across America. Over 850 schools in 170
cities in 34 states participated in the U.S. walk with international
Walk to School Day’s also occurring. To learn more about this event
or to register go to:
www.walktoschool-usa.org. To see what other countries are doing
visit the International Walk to School Day website at
HEARTS N’ PARKS: The nationwide Hearts N’ Parks program will
kick off this summer in partnership with the National Heart Blood
and Lung Institute, the National Recreation and Park Association,
North Carolina State University and Southern Connecticut State University.
The program, which was piloted in 12 North Carolina communities last
summer, involves integrating heart-healthy behaviors into already
existing park and recreation sponsored community activities. The goal
of the program is to increase the number of children and adults who
engage in regular moderate intensity physical activity and follow
a heart-healthy eating plan. For more information on program activities
or how to get involved go to
or call 800-649-3042.
MEAN STREETS 2000: The Surface Transportation Policy Project
released “Mean Streets 2000” in June. The report documents pedestrian
fatality rates in major US cities, and analyzes federal spending on
pedestrian projects. “Mean Streets” is available at the STPP’s website,
in both English and Spanish.
CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
PRO BIKE/PRO WALK 2000: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the
host city for “Bicycling and Walking: Smart Choices for Smart Growth
and Sustainable Neighborhoods,” the 2000 Pro Bike/Pro Walk conference.
Dates for the conference are September 5 – 8, 2000. Transportation
professionals, public health professionals, and walking/bicycling
advocates will be in attendance. Topics include Safe Routes to School:
Programs and Resources; If You Build It, Will They Be Active?; and
Public Health and Transportation: Working Together for Active Communities.
The “America Walks” coalition will also be offering a workshop on
pedestrian advocacy on Saturday the 9th in conjunction with the conference.
For registration information, visit http://www.bikewalk.org/PWPB2004/history.htm
or call the National Center for Bicycling and Walking at 202-463-6622.
Information about the America Walks training is at http://www.americawalks.org/resources/training/index.htm,
or e-mail email@example.com.
OBESITY: The American Obesity Association is hosting “Obesity:
The Public Health Conference” on September 13 and 14, 2000 in Washington,
DC. The conference is designed for those interested in obesity research,
prevention, education, and treatment. For more information, visit
the Association’s website at www.obesity.org,
or call 703-925-9455 for a brochure.
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: “Walk the Walk, Talk the Talk” is the
theme of the Cardiovascular Health for All conference being held in
Memphis, Tennessee on Sept. 18 – 20, 2000. The conference is sponsored
by the state health departments of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia, and
by the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, the Memphis-Shelby
County Health Department, the Tennessee Alliance on Fitness and Health,
and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Recent data and
research on cardiovascular disease will be presented along with information
on detection, prevention and treatment. Among many presentations are
workshops on the “Hearts n’ Parks” program, social marketing, and
homocysteine. Information is available at http://chs.ky.gov/publichealth/cardio-new.htm
or by calling Rhonda Fletcher at 615-741-7366, or e-mailing Martin
Miller at firstname.lastname@example.org.
PA AND OLDER ADULTS: The ACSM Specialty Conference “Physical
Activity Programming for the Older Adult” will be held October 20
–22, 2000 in Indianapolis. The conference is targeted at exercise
and health professionals, sports medicine clinicians, and gerontologists.
The purpose is to present and discuss information on specific issues
in programming for older adults such as pre-screening, liability,
programming, and evaluation. Loretta DiPietro, PhD, and Wojtek Jan
Chodzko-Zajko, PhD, are the co-chairs for the conference, and Steven
Blair, PED will give the keynote address. Contact ACSM at 317-637-9200
ext. 125 or 143, or visit http://www.acsm.org/grants/roundtable1.htm
for more information.
PA AND CANCER: The third symposium in the Cooper Institute
Conference Series will be on Physical Activity and Cancer. The symposium
will be held November 5 – 7, 2000, in partnership with the American
Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute. The program is targeted
to researchers and scholars involved in cancer and physical activity
research. Abstracts for poster presentations are due August 31, 2000.
A Student and Junior Investigator Competition will be held in conjunction
with the symposium, for short papers on physical activity and cancer.
For information contact Melba Morrow at email@example.com, or
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION: The 128th annual APHA
meeting and exposition will be held from November 12th-16th, 2000
in Boston, Massachusetts. This year’s theme is “Eliminating Health
Disparities”. Highlights of this years meeting include featured speakers
Kweisi Mfume, US Surgeon General David Satcher, and the Rev. Leon
Sullivan as well as over 900 scientific sessions and 200 poster sessions.
Early bird registration ($110 savings) ends September 1st and can
be completed online at http://www.laserreg.com/ or through the APHA
home page at http://www.apha.org/meetings/future_past.htm which also
includes programming information.
WEBSITES OF INTEREST
PA AND DISABILITY: The website of the National Center on
Physical Activity and Disability (NCPAD) contains and outstanding
selection of resources for people with disabilities, physical activity
professionals, and researchers. Resources include fact sheets on a
variety of sports and activities (including one on trail accessibility),
Powerpoint presentations, article reprints, bibliographies on physical
activity and its relationship to various health conditions, links
to state programs and resources, and a link to the Americans with
Disabilities Act Technical Assistance Program. To easily reach the
resources, click on “Contents” at the top of the NCPAD webpage. The
NCPAD is located in the Department of Disability and Human Development
at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and is operated in partnership
with the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and the National Center
on Accessibility at Indiana University. Funding is provided through
a grant from the Disability and Health Branch in the National Center
for Environmental Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The NCPAD website is at www.ncpad.org.
SURVEYS: The University of Rhode Island’s Cancer Prevention
Research Center provides access to psychological measures it has developed,
The website notes, “All assessment inventories are available for research
purposes only and are not for clinical use. Physical activity-related
measures include Stages of Change, Process of Change, and Self-Efficacy.
References are included.
Writers: Regina Fields, Ralph Welsh
This and past issues of the “University of South Carolina Prevention
Research Center Notes” are available at our website. If you have an
item you’d like to submit, please send it to Regina Fields at firstname.lastname@example.org.
For continuing discussions about physical activity and public health,
join the “Physical Activity and Public Health On-Line Network.” Visit
our website, http://prevention.sph.sc.edu,
for instructions on joining.
Prevention Research Center
Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina
730 Devine Street, Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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